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Wan-Ling Tseng, Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Noel Keenlyside, Chiung-Wen June Chang, Ben-Jei Tsuang, Chia-Ying Tu, and Li-Chiang Jiang

complex land–sea contrast and orography in the MC also exerts effects on the prominent tropical phenomenon such as the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), an intraseasonal fluctuation ( Madden and Julian 1972 ; Zhang 2005 ), during its passage through the MC ( Hsu and Lee 2005 ; Inness and Slingo 2006 ; Wu and Hsu 2009 ; Sobel et al. 2010 ; Oh et al. 2012 , 2013 ; Birch et al. 2016 ; Hagos et al. 2016 ; Kim et al. 2017 ; Zhang and Ling 2017 ). Matthews (2000) and Hsu and Lee (2005) reveal

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

1. Introduction Deep convective structures populate the tropics, provide the energetics that drive the large-scale tropical circulation, and interact with superimposed atmospheric waves ( Riehl and Malkus 1957 ; Lorenz 1969 ; Hendon and Liebmann 1991 ; Kiladis and Weickmann 1992 ; Chang 1995 ; Lane et al. 2001 ; Fierro et al. 2009 ). The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 , 1994 ; Zhang 2005 ) is one such disturbance, and while the MJO is commonly defined

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Arun Kumar, Jieshun Zhu, and Wanqiu Wang

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is the most prominent mode of variability in the equatorial latitudes on subseasonal time scales ( Madden and Julian 1971 ). MJO variability has been documented to modulate monsoon variability ( Lavender and Matthews 2009 ), hurricane activity in tropical latitudes ( Maloney and Hartmann 2000 ), extratropical weather regimes ( Lin and Brunet 2009 ; Moore et al. 2010 ; Zhou et al. 2012 ) and plays an important role in the development of ENSO

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Yan Zhu, Tim Li, Ming Zhao, and Tomoe Nasuno

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) (all acronyms have been listed in Table 1 ) is the dominant intraseasonal oscillation in tropics, with typical periodicity between 20 and 100 days ( Madden and Julian 1972 ; Knutson and Weickmann 1987 ; Hendon and Salby 1994 ). The convective envelope associated with MJO moves slowly eastward at a phase speed of about 5–10 m s −1 ( Neelin et al. 1987 ; Wang 1988 ; Maloney 2009 ; Hsu and Li 2012 ). The structure of the MJO is

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Ching-Shu Hung and Chung-Hsiung Sui

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is the dominant intraseasonal variability in the tropical atmosphere. It can be described as a tropical planetary-scale circulation system coupled with a multiscale convective complex and propagating eastward slowly with a rearward tilted vertical structure and a mixed Kelvin–Rossby wave horizontal structure ( Madden and Julian 1972 ; Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ; Wheeler et al. 2000 ; Kiladis et al. 2005 ; Wang 2012 ). The planetary

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

is that the diurnal precipitation cycle tends to be suppressed by the onset of background conditions of cloudiness and convection, possibly with the added contribution of large-scale background winds affecting the strength of local land and sea breezes. For example, Peatman et al. (2014) used observational evidence from the TRMM satellite to show that the diurnal precipitation cycle over the land reached a maximum ahead of the main envelope of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). This maximum

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Jian Ling, Yuqing Zhao, and Guiwan Chen

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ) is the dominant component of intraseasonal (30–90 days) variability in the tropics. It consists of a circulation of planetary zonal scales coupled with organized deep convection. Its convection usually forms over the central Indian Ocean, propagates eastward across the Indo-Pacific Maritime Continent (MC) and warm pool along the equator at an average speed of about 5 m s −1 , and disappears over the central

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Casey R. Densmore, Elizabeth R. Sanabia, and Bradford S. Barrett

1. Introduction Several recent studies have analyzed relationships between the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO; Lindzen and Holton 1968 ; Baldwin et al. 2001 ) and amplitudes of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ) in boreal (and extended boreal) winter (e.g., Liu et al. 2014 ; Yoo and Son 2016 ; Marshall et al. 2017 ; Nishimoto and Yoden 2017 ; Son et al. 2017 ; Zhang and Zhang 2018 ). The primary findings of those studies are that during boreal winter

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Chidong Zhang and Jian Ling

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ) is a primary source of predictability of the Earth system on subseasonal (3–6 weeks) time scales ( Waliser et al. 2003 ). As the MJO moves eastward, its influences on many environmental hazards (e.g., tropical cyclones, cold surges, heat waves, lightning, and flood) and climate modes [e.g., Indian Ocean dipole (IOD), ENSO, and NAO] depend on whether its convection center is over the Indian Ocean, the Indo

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Lei Song and Renguang Wu

intraseasonal time scale ( Song and Wu 2018 ). The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is the most prominent system among the intraseasonal oscillations in the tropics. It is manifested as eastward propagation of zonal wavenumber 1 on a time scale of 30–60 days ( Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ; Lin and Brunet 2009 ). The tropical heating in association with the MJO can induce tropospheric Rossby wave trains ( Jin and Hoskins 1995 ; Matthews et al. 2004 ). The MJO-induced Rossby wave train propagates poleward

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