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Andrew J. Majda and Samuel N. Stechmann

: Climate science in the tropics: Waves, vortices, and PDEs . Nonlinearity , 26 , R1 – R68 , doi: 10.1088/0951-7715/26/1/R1 . Kikuchi , K. , and Y. N. Takayabu , 2004 : The development of organized convection associated with the MJO during TOGA COARE IOP: Trimodal characteristics. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 31 , L10101 , doi: 10.1029/2004GL019601 . Kiladis , G. N. , K. H. Straub , and P. T. Haertel , 2005 : Zonal and vertical structure of the Madden–Julian oscillation . J. Atmos. Sci

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T. N. Krishnamurti, Ruby Krishnamurti, Anu Simon, Aype Thomas, and Vinay Kumar

1. Introduction This study addresses the role of deep convection, nonlinear dynamics, and energetics for the maintenance of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO). The horizontal scale of the MJO is around 10 000 km. It is largely defined by zonal wavenumbers 1 and 2 ( Madden and Julian 1971 ). This wave carries its largest amplitude over the equatorial latitudes and moves around Earth in roughly 20 to 60 days ( Madden and Julian 1971 ; Krishnamurti and Gadgil 1985 ; Waliser et al. 2003 ). The

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Kazuyoshi Oouchi and Masaki Satoh

equatorial open oceans . Its definition in this chapter is as described in italics. An SCC is frequently observed in the convectively active phase of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), and it is hardly observed outside of the Pacific warm water pool ( Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ; Hayashi and Nakazawa 1989 ). It forms somewhere over or to the west of the Maritime Continent; develops into the active, well-identifiable form over the western Pacific; and decays as it approaches the central Pacific (e

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Steven Ghan and Joyce E. Penner
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Eric D. Maloney and Chidong Zhang

1. Introduction Among his many achievements in atmospheric science, Professor Yanai made substantial contributions, both directly and indirectly, to the study of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ). These contributions are reviewed in this chapter. We first discuss how the discovery of the MJO was influenced by Professor Yanai’s observational identification of equatorial waves ( section 2 ). We then review Professor Yanai’s direct contributions to MJO research

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David Randall, Charlotte DeMott, Cristiana Stan, Marat Khairoutdinov, James Benedict, Rachel McCrary, Katherine Thayer-Calder, and Mark Branson

particular, the simulations showed propagating convective systems that resembled the Madden–Julian oscillation 1 (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ). The MJO is an eastward-propagating tropical disturbance that spans thousands of kilometers in the zonal direction, with an irregular period in the range 40–50 days. Despite its large spatial and temporal scales, and its powerful effects on tropical weather, the MJO has proven very difficult to simulate with GCMs (e.g., Lin et al. 2006 ; Kim et al

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Boualem Khouider and Andrew J. Majda

1. Introduction Convection in the tropics is organized on a hierarchy of scales ranging from the convective cell of a few kilometers to planetary-scale disturbances such as the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) ( Nakazawa 1974 ). Cloud clusters and superclusters occur on the meso- and synoptic scales and often appear embedded in each other and within the MJO envelope. Analysis of outgoing longwave radiation cross correlated with the reanalysis products helped identify the synoptic

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Baode Chen, Wen-wen Tung, and Michio Yanai

tropics can be divided into two regimes conditioned on the direction of the time-mean upper-level zonal wind at the equator, and that PKE maximum is located within the westerlies. It needs to be pointed out that the PKE utilized in aforementioned studies was defined as the time mean kinetic energy of the motions on having time scales of less than one month. In consequence, the intraseasonal variability containing the Madden–Julian oscillation [MJO; Madden and Julian (1971) , ( 1972 ), ( 1994

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Chih-Pei Chang, Mong-Ming Lu, and Hock Lim

oscillation (MJO). The MJO often has peak amplitude over the Maritime Continent during boreal winter ( Madden and Julian 1972 ), and its convection can also strengthen the local Hadley cell and the East Asian jet ( Jeong et al. 2008 ; He et al. 2011 ). The MJO causes alternating periods of large-scale active and inactive convective phases with a periodicity of 30–60 days as it propagates eastward through the region ( Chang et al. 2005a , 2006 ; Zhang 2005 ; Robertson et al. 2011 ). Thus, the frequency

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Robert G. Fovell and Wen-wen Tung

between Q 1 and Q 2 . Other than reflecting the consistency between the net latent heat release present in both equations, the beauty of examining this coupling is to reveal the vertical eddy transport of moist static energy due to convection. Much of the complexity in tropical convection coupled motions results from the convective eddy transport interacting with the baroclinic atmospheric states associated, for example, with tropical waves and the Madden–Julian oscillation (chapters 3–5) and

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