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Yvonne Boose, Zamin A. Kanji, Monika Kohn, Berko Sierau, Assaf Zipori, Ian Crawford, Gary Lloyd, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Erik Herrmann, Piotr Kupiszewski, Martin Steinbacher, and Ulrike Lohmann

biological activity, they might significantly affect cloud formation ( Hoose et al. 2010 ). Primary biological particles associated with sea spray have gained increasing attention in recent years as field studies have suggested their ice nucleation activity plays a dominant role at remote marine locations ( Bigg 1973 ; Wilson et al. 2015 ). Knopf et al. (2014) observed that the majority of INPs were associated with aged sea salt particles at a marine site close to anthropogenic and biogenic sources

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

-top height, cloud cover, and cloud thickness in the daytime. Over tropical oceanic regions under the radiative–convective equilibrium condition, the aerosol indirect effect is estimated to be only about 0.5 W m −2 , which is mediated by the interactive sea surface temperature ( Khairoutdinov and Yang 2013 ). Many observations also focused on regional AIE. Over the tropics, Peng et al. (2016a) found significant enhancement in both shortwave and longwave cloud radiation forcing due to aerosol

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Eyal Ilotoviz, Alexander P. Khain, Nir Benmoshe, Vaughan T. J. Phillips, and Alexander V. Ryzhkov

.1088/1748-9326/4/1/015004 . Khain , A. P. , and I. L. Sednev , 1995 : Simulation of hydrometeor size spectra evolution by water-water, ice-water and ice-ice interactions . Atmos. Res. , 36 , 107 – 138 , doi: 10.1016/0169-8095(94)00030-H . Khain , A. P. , and I. L. Sednev , 1996 : Simulation of precipitation formation in the Eastern Mediterranean coastal zone using a spectral microphysics cloud ensemble model . Atmos. Res. , 43 , 77 – 110 , doi: 10.1016/S0169-8095(96)00005-1 . Khain , A. P. , M

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