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Alexandra Jahn, Kara Sterling, Marika M. Holland, Jennifer E. Kay, James A. Maslanik, Cecilia M. Bitz, David A. Bailey, Julienne Stroeve, Elizabeth C. Hunke, William H. Lipscomb, and Daniel A. Pollak

: Heat budgets of the Arctic Mediterranean and sea surface heat flux parameterizations for the Nordic Seas . J. Geophys. Res. , 101 ( C3 ), 6553 – 6576 . Smedsrud , L. H. , R. Ingvaldsen , J. E. Ø. Nilsen , and Ø. Skagseth , 2010 : Heat in the Barents Sea: Transport, storage, and surface fluxes . Ocean Sci. , 6 , 219 – 234 , doi:10.5194/os-6-219-2010 . Smith , R. , and Coauthors , 2010 : The Parallel Ocean Program (POP) reference manual . Los Alamos National Laboratory Tech

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Gokhan Danabasoglu, Susan C. Bates, Bruce P. Briegleb, Steven R. Jayne, Markus Jochum, William G. Large, Synte Peacock, and Steve G. Yeager

) simulations in comparison with available observations and those of CCSM3, presenting improvements as well as existing biases in CCSM4; and iii) to assess the consequences of two different spinup procedures used in CCSM3 and CCSM4 on the deep ocean properties. In addition, the solutions from an ocean–sea ice hindcast case forced with interannually varying atmospheric data are documented in comparison with observations as well as the 20C simulations, the former to assess the fidelity of the forced ocean

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Christine A. Shields, David A. Bailey, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Markus Jochum, Jeffrey T. Kiehl, Samuel Levis, and Sungsu Park

the 1850 control experiments, the North Pacific feature appears to be much stronger in FV2x1_1850 and accounts for the largest variance in EOF1 sea level pressure, ( Fig. 19 ). T31x3 and FV2x1 EOF1 sea level pressure exhibit different yet arguably equivalent errors in both shape and placement of NAM patterns. Correlations of sea level pressure PC1 to TS and PRECT ( Fig. 18 ) show T31x3_20C capturing the key areas of temperature and precipitation anomalies across Europe and the Mediterranean region

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Gerald A. Meehl, Warren M. Washington, Julie M. Arblaster, Aixue Hu, Haiyan Teng, Jennifer E. Kay, Andrew Gettelman, David M. Lawrence, Benjamin M. Sanderson, and Warren G. Strand

CESM1(CAM5) compared to CCSM4 are discussed in section 5 . Projected changes of Arctic and Antarctic climate are described in section 6 , while discussion and conclusions follow in sections 7 and 8 , respectively. 2. Model and experiments a. Model description The CESM1(CAM5) has the same land, ocean (including an overflow parameterization), and sea ice components as in CCSM4 ( Gent et al. 2011 ), with the biggest change occurring in the atmosphere. General features of the model formulation are

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Gijs de Boer, William Chapman, Jennifer E. Kay, Brian Medeiros, Matthew D. Shupe, Steve Vavrus, and John Walsh

-05CH11231. S.V. would like to acknowledge NSF Grant ARC-0628910. M.S. was supported by NSF Project ARC0632187 and DOE Project DE-FG02-05ER63965. G.B. also acknowledges support from NSF grant ARC1023366. REFERENCES Aagaard , K. , and E. Carmack , 1989 : The role of sea ice and other freshwater in the Arctic Mediterranean seas . J. Geophys. Res. , 94 , 14 485 – 14 498 . Adler , R. , and Coauthors , 2003 : The version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation

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Susan C. Bates, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Steven R. Jayne, William G. Large, Samantha Stevenson, and Stephen G. Yeager

–5) exhibits a negative bias in precipitation over the North Atlantic basin, which leads to an overall negative mean freshwater bias seen in Fig. 1 . Additionally, the runoff errors of the Congo and Baffin Bay/Canadian Archipelago, due to an excess of precipitation over the continents ( Danabasoglu et al. 2011 ), contribute to the positive bias in regions 6 and 1, respectively. Improvement in Nile River runoff has reduced the freshwater flux into the Mediterranean Sea, improving the local freshwater bias

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Ernesto Muñoz, Wilbert Weijer, Semyon A. Grodsky, Susan C. Bates, and Ilana Wainer

is noted in the CCSM4 versus CCSM3 ( Danabasoglu et al. 2012a ) (this shift is mostly due to the spinup procedure effects described in the data and methods section). The mean values from 30°S to 30°N of the tropical Atlantic SST difference from observations (excluding the Mediterranean Sea) are −0.50°C for CCSM3 and 0.41°C for CCSM4, reflecting the warming shift. The root-mean-square (RMS) error of the SST differences over the same region does show improvement, with a value of 1.65°C for CCSM3

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Alicia R. Karspeck, Steve Yeager, Gokhan Danabasoglu, Tim Hoar, Nancy Collins, Kevin Raeder, Jeffrey Anderson, and Joseph Tribbia

development is part of a broader initiative at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to build assimilation capabilities for the atmosphere, land, sea ice, and ocean components of the community model. There is currently an array of global ocean assimilation products available to the climate-science community that employ various ocean general circulation models and assimilation algorithms. The assimilation methods used to construct these products are all least squares methods that attempt to

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Kerry H. Cook, Gerald A. Meehl, and Julie M. Arblaster

this paper are described briefly in section 2 . Sections 3 – 6 include documentation of the West African, East African, North American, and South American monsoon systems, respectively. Conclusions follow in section 7 . 2. Model and observed data descriptions The standard CCSM3 (e.g., Collins et al. 2006 ) is compared to the new CCSM4 ( Gent et al. 2011 ). The CCSM3 had a T85 atmospheric model with 26 levels in the vertical and was coupled to land and sea ice components as well as a nominal 1

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S. J. Ghan, X. Liu, R. C. Easter, R. Zaveri, P. J. Rasch, J.-H. Yoon, and B. Eaton

between the direct forcing by each component. Table 2. Decomposition of global mean direct forcing (W m −2 ) for year 1850 – 2000. To understand this difference, Fig. 2 shows the spatial distribution of each component of the direct forcing for MAM3. Most of the spatial distribution of the total direct forcing is explained by the contributions from each component, with strong cooling over the Mediterranean Sea due to sulfate aerosol over the cloud-free water, and strong warming by fossil fuel black

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