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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

850 hPa. 4.2. Nonlocal responses of air temperature to LULCC In addition to local responses, we also found significant nonlocal responses of tropospheric air temperatures to LULCC ( Figure 5 ). The 850-hPa air temperature shows a significant decrease over the leeward side of LULCC regions (e.g., East Asia to the western North Pacific Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea to North Africa, North America to the Atlantic Ocean, and North America to the eastern Pacific Ocean; see Figure 5 ). Similar to the

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Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Amy R. Hudson, Julio Betancourt, and Valerie Trouet

(Pearson and Spearman, respectively) based on the Shapiro–Wilk test results ( Table S1 ). Each NHJ index time series was transformed to an array of z scores in order to relate NHJ latitudinal position anomalies (north–south of average) to regional climate using the Climate Research Unit (CRU) gridded (0.5 ° × 0.5 ° ) monthly time series data (CRU TS3.23; Harris et al. 2014 ) and to sea level pressure (SLP; HadSLP2; Allan and Ansell 2006 ) in a correlation map analysis ( Table S2 ). The NHJ indices

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Yaqian He and Eungul Lee

understanding of the influencing factors for the rainfall variability over the Sahel could improve the predictive skill in rainfall forecasting, which will benefit the local people. Figure 1. The land-use and land-cover types of Africa from the MODIS land-cover dataset in 2001. The Sahel region is outlined in red. Sahel rainfall is known to be strongly influenced by sea surface temperature (SST), both globally and in oceans adjacent to the African continent ( Martin and Thorncroft 2014 ; Mohino et al. 2011

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A L. Hirsch, A. J. Pitman, J. Kala, R. Lorenz, and M. G. Donat

of environments ranging from tropical forests in the north through to temperate and Mediterranean climates in the south, east, and west, to hyperarid desert environments away from the coast ( Gentilli 1972 ). Australia therefore provides an ideal test case for evaluating the relationship between LUC, temperature extremes, and land–atmosphere coupling. 2. Methodology 2.1. Model description WRF is a community regional weather and climate model with a nonhydrostatic Eulerian dynamical core with

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G. Strandberg and E. Kjellström

allowed to grow freely without human intervention under present-day climate conditions; after 300 years of spin up, we take the simulated vegetation as representative of CTL conditions. This results in a forest cover of 100% almost everywhere and is regarded as an extreme case for maximum forest cover. This could be seen as a proxy for prehistoric conditions in Europe (e.g., Trondman et al. 2015 ). In some regions (e.g., around the Mediterranean Sea), vegetation is limited by precipitation. In

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