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Man-Li C. Wu, Oreste Reale, and Siegfried D. Schubert

.g., sinusoidal) and is applied to unfiltered data. Section 2 describes the data and methodology adopted. Section 3 provides the results, including the climatology, the modes resulting from the 2D-EEMD, a description of wave structure and propagation, and some dynamical implications. As an example of tropical–extratropical interaction, section 3e shows two cases of a synoptic-scale event on the 6–9-day time scale with strong implications for the Mediterranean region and central Europe. Section 4

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Man-Li C. Wu, Oreste Reale, Siegfried D. Schubert, Max J. Suarez, and Chris D. Thorncroft

factors such as sea surface temperatures, surface temperature gradients, moisture and precipitation on various scales, contributions from Saharan air, and cold air intrusions from the Mediterranean across the Sahara can all inhibit or enhance the development of AEWs into cyclones. Nonetheless, the fact that something as simple as the barotropic instability of the mean flow, without considering any other property, appears to coincide broadly with the area where a large number of storms tend to occur

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Mark Decker, Michael A. Brunke, Zhuo Wang, Koichi Sakaguchi, Xubin Zeng, and Michael G. Bosilovich

1. Introduction Reanalysis products are typically used for many varying applications in the earth science community due to the lack of globally and temporally complete direct observations ( Qian et al. 2006 ). Examples of the uses of reanalysis products are to drive land surface models, study the climate system, and provide boundary conditions for regional modeling. Reanalysis products merge available observations with a state-of-the-art atmospheric (or more recently, coupled ocean–atmosphere–sea

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