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David A. R. Kristovich, Eugene Takle, George S. Young, and Ashish Sharma

.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045101 Finardi , S. , and Coauthors , 2018 : Atmospheric dynamics and ozone cycle during sea breeze in a Mediterranean complex urbanized coastal site . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 57 , 1083 – 1099 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-17-0117.1 . 10.1175/JAMC-D-17-0117.1 Findlay , B. F. , and M. S. Hirt , 1969 : An urban-induced meso-circulation . Atmos. Environ. , 3 , 537 – 542 , https://doi.org/10.1016/0004-6981(69)90043-2 . 10.1016/0004-6981(69)90043-2 Fisher , E. L. , 1960 : An

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Kerry Emanuel

subtropical cyclone was later classified as Tropical Storm Omeka. (Source: the NOAA–NASA GOES Project; https://goes.gsfc.nasa.gov/ .) Subtropical cyclones sometimes occur over the Mediterranean Sea, where they are known as “medicanes” ( Ernst and Matson 1983 ; Mayengon 1984 ; Rasmussen and Zick 1987 ; Alpert and Neeman 1992 ; Pytharoulis et al. 2000 ; Homar et al. 2003 ; Emanuel 2005b ; Lionello et al. 2006 ; Fita et al. 2007 ; Miglietta et al. 2008 ; Moscatello et al. 2008 ; Claud et al. 2010

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Carl Wunsch and Raffaele Ferrari

Laplace tidal equations did not appear until the work of Miles (1974) who showed that they could only be justified if the fluid was actually stratified—even though they are used to describe unstratified (homogeneous) fluid flows. 9 Whether the Arctic is a sea or an ocean is not universally agreed on. Sverdrup et al. (1942) called it the “Arctic Mediterranean Sea,” both in acknowledgment of its being surrounded by land and because of its small size. 10 From a letter addressed to the Massachusetts

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M. Haeffelin, S. Crewell, A. J. Illingworth, G. Pappalardo, H. Russchenberg, M. Chiriaco, K. Ebell, R. J. Hogan, and F. Madonna

. The U.S. ARM Program was designed initially to cover three distinct climatic regions ( Cress and Sisterson 2016 , chapter 5): the Arctic (Alaska), midlatitudes [U.S. southern Great Plains (SGP)], and the tropics [tropical western Pacific (TWP) Ocean]. Atmospheric profiling observatories in Europe were developed primarily over the European continent, extending from locations around the Mediterranean Basin to the Arctic, and including coastal, continental, urban, and mountain sites. The European

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David M. Schultz, Lance F. Bosart, Brian A. Colle, Huw C. Davies, Christopher Dearden, Daniel Keyser, Olivia Martius, Paul J. Roebber, W. James Steenburgh, Hans Volkert, and Andrew C. Winters

and 20 tracks per 10 6 km 2 per season. Blue lines show individual cyclone tracks for the top 0.5% of the most intense cyclones ranked by minimum sea level pressure (shown separately for the Pacific Ocean, North Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and Southern Ocean). (b) Vertically and longitudinally averaged, 10-day high-pass-filtered, northward total energy transport (black curve) and momentum transport (MOM; gray curve) from ERA-Interim. The energy transport is also divided into dry static

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Ronald B. Smith

moving through the Mediterranean Sea impacting the Alps are discussed by Rotunno and Ferretti (2001) and Smith et al. (2003) . These cool-season weather systems are precipitating all by themselves, but their precipitation patterns can be strongly modulated by terrain. Existing storms set the local environment for OP in many ways. First they usually bring strong water vapor flux against the terrain, often in the form of an atmospheric river ( Kingsmill et al. 2006 , 2013 ; Hughes et al. 2014

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Zamin A. Kanji, Luis A. Ladino, Heike Wex, Yvonne Boose, Monika Burkert-Kohn, Daniel J. Cziczo, and Martina Krämer

particles Primary organic particles can be, for example, emitted in marine environments, whereas secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles result from gas-to-particle conversion of volatile organics. Much of the data on IN from the literature (see Fig. 1-3 ) are based on laboratory studies of idealized organic particles due to the complexity in the characterization of ambient organic particles. Organic material (likely of primary origin) emitted by marine organisms collected from the sea surface

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Sue Ellen Haupt, Branko Kosović, Scott W. McIntosh, Fei Chen, Kathleen Miller, Marshall Shepherd, Marcus Williams, and Sheldon Drobot

Fire Area Simulator (FARSITE; Finney 1998 ) and BehavePlus (and its predecessor “BEHAVE”; Andrews 1986 , 2014 ) in the United States, Prometheus designed for Canadian fuel complexes ( Tymstra et al. 2009 ), Amicus in Australia ( Plucinski et al. 2017 ), “SYPYDA” for Mediterranean pine forests ( Mitsopoulos et al. 2016 ), and so on. Uncoupled models are able to provide predictions of wildland fire behavior in real time with limited computational resources. They utilize weather data either from

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Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Markus Petters, and Ulrike Lohmann

Simpson (1941) published his article “On the formation of cloud and rain,” it was understood that both hygroscopic and nonhygroscopic “condensation nuclei” (defined by the measurement methodologies; see below) existed in the atmosphere, with three types proposed: products of combustion, or “smoke,” that included condensed sulfuric and nitrous acids; insoluble particles, including mineral dust and insoluble combustion products; and various salts originating from sea spray. The work of Christian Junge

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S. A. Ackerman, S. Platnick, P. K. Bhartia, B. Duncan, T. L’Ecuyer, A. Heidinger, G. Skofronick-Jackson, N. Loeb, T. Schmit, and N. Smith

of the semiannual and annual cycles that may be forced by the regular variation in solar input throughout the year. The Nimbus measurements showed the influence of continents on the radiation budget and the zonal variation ( Kubota and Imai 1986 ), while also confirming that the latitudinal variations of ERB components are larger than the longitudinal variations; the longitudinal variation is primarily determined by land–sea distribution. a. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment The Earth Radiation

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