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Simon O. Krichak, Joseph S. Breitgand, and Steven B. Feldstein

1. Introduction Among the various synoptic processes that take place over northeastern Africa and the southeastern Mediterranean Sea region (MR) that contribute significantly to precipitation, an important place is occupied by a phenomenon characterized by a tongue of low pressure extending northward from the southern Red Sea toward the eastern Mediterranean (EM) ( Ashbel 1938 ; El-Fandy 1948 ), that is, the Red Sea Trough (RST) system. The RST attains its largest amplitude in the lower

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Sandro Finardi, Giuseppe Agrillo, Rita Baraldi, Giuseppe Calori, Pantaleone Carlucci, Paolo Ciccioli, Alessio D’Allura, Daniele Gasbarra, Beniamino Gioli, Vincenzo Magliulo, Paola Radice, Piero Toscano, and Alessandro Zaldei

). Summertime atmospheric circulation in the western Mediterranean Basin is characterized by distinctive features: the presence of mountains close to coastal areas favors the combination of land–sea breezes, mountain–valley breezes, and slope winds, generating return flows possibly across several layers ( Millán et al. 2000 ). Daytime compensatory subsidence over the coast and sea can be superimposed on large-scale subsidence because of the anticyclonic circulation over the basin. Nighttime land breeze can

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Cesar Azorin-Molina, Bernadette H. Connell, and Rafael Baena-Calatrava

-Cantos and Azorin-Molina 2004 ), bringing an average of 100–125 mm yearly to inland areas ( Millán et al. 2005 ). Most air boundaries that cause storm development are primarily associated with the sea breeze, since they are the main mesoscale circulation in terms of occurrence and persistence over the region. Consequently, sea-breeze fronts are common phenomena from May to October in the Iberian Mediterranean area and the isle of Mallorca (Spain; Fig. 1a ). Despite their importance for local weather and

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Didier Ricard, Véronique Ducrocq, and Ludovic Auger

1. Introduction The western Mediterranean Sea region is regularly affected by heavily precipitating events (HPEs) potentially associated with devastating flash floods (e.g., Sénési et al. 1996 ; Romero et al. 2000 ; Ferretti et al. 2000 ; Argence et al. 2008 ). Among other areas (eastern Spain, Italy, and northern Africa), southern France is particularly exposed to this hydrometeorological hazard. Figure 1a , showing the locations of maxima of daily precipitation above 150 mm during a 40

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S. Zecchetto and F. De Biasio

1. Introduction The Mediterranean Sea is a semienclosed basin, with a maximum extent of about 4000 km east–west and 1200 km north–south. It is almost entirely surrounded by mountain chains (with the exception of the east coast of Tunisia), which often rise nearby the coastline. The complexity of the coastal orography and the presence of mountainous islands deeply influence the local-scale atmospheric circulation in the Ekman layer, producing local effects at spatial scales down to a few

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Angélique Godart, Sandrine Anquetin, Etienne Leblois, and Jean-Dominique Creutin

The Cévennes–Vivarais area is a southeasterly-facing slope limited by the Mediterranean Sea shore to the south and the Rhône valley to the east ( Fig. 1a ). The elevation varies from sea level up to 1500 m (Mount Lozère), over roughly 30 km ( Fig. 1b ). This hilly terrain is dissected by relatively deep and narrow valleys (500 m deep, 10 km wide) that are mainly oriented along a northwest–southeast axis. The topography is divided into three sectors ( Fig. 1b ): 1) the plain where the elevation

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Nan Yu, Guy Delrieu, Brice Boudevillain, Pieter Hazenberg, and Remko Uijlenhoet

( x ). The main findings of this work are summarized in section 6 . 2. DSD data Over the Cévennes–Vivarais area, autumn precipitation is typically associated with various forms of convective rainfall ranging from thunderstorms to orographic rainfall and mesoscale convective systems, under the influence of the moist airflow from the Mediterranean Sea ( Nuissier et al. 2008 ). The Cévennes–Vivarais Mediterranean Hydrometeorological Observatory ( Delrieu et al. 2005 ; Boudevillain et al. 2011

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J. Cuxart, M. A. Jiménez, M. Telišman Prtenjak, and B. Grisogono

the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula (IP) has been analyzed in many studies (e.g., Millan et al. 1997 ; Kottmeier et al. 2000 ; Azorin-Molina et al. 2009 ; Fock and Schlünzen 2012 ; Hernández-Ceballos et al. 2013 ). The nearby island of Mallorca, Spain ( Fig. 1 ), has a very large occurrence of SB, up to 70%–80% of the days in summer ( Ramis and Romero 1995 , hereinafter RR95 ). It is located in the western Mediterranean Sea, 200 km away from the Iberian coast—far enough not to be

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George Kallos, Marina Astitha, Petros Katsafados, and Chris Spyrou

. Impacts of synoptic/regional circulation patterns on transport and transformation processes of PM are discussed thoroughly in this work. b. Regional climatological description The Mediterranean Sea is closed from all sides and is surrounded by high peninsulas and important mountain barriers. The gaps between these major mountainous regions act as channels for the airmass transport toward the GMR. The climatic conditions in the GMR can be roughly divided into cold and warm periods ( Maheras et al. 1999

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Francisco Pastor, MarÍa J. Estrela, David Peñarrocha, and Millán M. Millán

leading edge, a mass of maritime polar air (mP) across north-central Europe and through the Rhone Valley toward the western Mediterranean ( Fig. 3a ). By the time it reached the sea, its surface temperature was still some 6°–10°C lower than the Mediterranean SST. The southerly transport along the surface was accompanied by the displacement of a trough of cold air aloft, and both resulted in the development of a Genoa depression, as shown in Figs. 3a, b , which produced generalized storms over central

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