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S. Christodoulaki, G. Petihakis, N. Mihalopoulos, K. Tsiaras, G. Triantafyllou, and M. Kanakidou

atmospheric inputs of phosphates to the ocean being 15% of total atmospheric inputs and contributing as much as 50% to the deposition over the oligotrophic ocean where productivity may be limited by P. An increase in the N:P ratio in the ocean seems to have been driven by the increase in deposition of atmospheric N, although potential changes in atmospheric P deposition also impact on this ratio. The Mediterranean Sea is divided into two subbasins with different hydrological and biological characteristics

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Philippe Peyrillé, Jean-Philippe Lafore, and Jean-Luc Redelsperger

and Cook 2002 ). Ward (1998) showed in particular that the north–south SST gradient is well correlated with the intensity of Sahelian precipitation. Recently, Rowell (2003) and Raicich et al. (2003) showed that Eastern Mediterranean SST anomalies are positively correlated with rainfall over the Sahel. Rowell explained it within the context of a numerical study as being caused by an increased evaporation for a warm sea, which sustains vapor transport into the continent. The continental

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J. Neumann

quadrant from which the land breeze blows.The fundamental fact is pointed out that, because of the curvature of the coast of the eastern Mediterranean (concave toward the sea), the fields of the land breezes and the diurnal winds in the friction layerconstitute a convergent wind field, particularly pronounced in the winter. The type of low over the easternMediterranean in which land-breeze convergences make an important contribution toward the formation ofnocturnal thunderstorms is discussed briefly. A

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M. Koçak, N. Mihalopoulos, E. Tutsak, K. Violaki, C. Theodosi, P. Zarmpas, and P. Kalegeri

1. Introduction The Black Sea is an almost enclosed basin having limited interaction with the Mediterranean Sea through the Turkish Strait system. Its strong density stratification inhibits vertical mixing ( Tuğrul et al. 1992 ; Özsoy and Ünlüata 1997 ). The Black Sea, being a dilution basin with a positive water balance because of excessive precipitation and riverine runoff compared to evaporation, is the largest enclosed sea in the world [ Tuncer et al. (1998) and references therein]. The

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M. Griggs

EOMET cruiseacross the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. These data were obtained at the same time as NOAA 5and GOES visible radiance measurements in the vicinity of the ship. Linear relationships between the upwelling radiance and the aerosol optical thickness were found for each satellite, confirming earlier Landsatresults. Differences in the relationships for each satellite are attributed to differences in the radiometriccalibrations of the satellite sensors.1. IntroductionThe atmospheric

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Simon O. Krichak and Pinhas Alpert

the period for the current analysis has been stimulated by the previous results. A detailed discussion of the synoptic developments and the high-resolution modeling results are available in Krichak and Alpert (1998) , Krichak and Levin (2000) , and Krichak et al. (2000) . The autumn of 1994 was quite rainy in the Mediterranean region. High positive anomalies of the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Red Sea in October 1994 (up to 3°C; Reynolds and Smith 1994 ) suggest that the surface

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F. M. Ali

development of lowpressure systems (the so-called Cyprus lows) over the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Such systems have beenobserved at upper levels, particularly at 500 mb, and have been found to originate as upper lows furtherwest or west-southwest over northwest Africa, south of latitude 30°N, where they usually first appearon our charts.These upper lows move east-northeastward, and after an average time of five days they give rise toactive Cyprus depressions. At this stage their displacements are

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Akiko Higurashi and Teruyuki Nakajima

Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the east coast of North America, and the east coast of southern China. Longitudes and latitudes of the regions are listed in Table 2 . The figure shows that off the west coast of North Africa the Ångström exponent increases from about 0.3 to 0.5 with increasing optical thickness and is almost constant after reaching 0.5. In this region, the Ångström exponent stays at small values due to large desert dust particles. For the region off the west coast of southern Africa

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Ulf Högström, Erik Sahlée, Ann-Sofi Smedman, Anna Rutgersson, Erik Nilsson, Kimmo K. Kahma, and William M. Drennan

; Drennan et al. 2003 ) was carried out with extensive on-site measurements at a site in the Gulf of Lion in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea between 13 March and 15 April 1998. An Air–Sea Interaction Spar (ASIS) buoy ( Graber et al. 2000 ) was moored 50 km offshore at a depth of 100 m, roughly halfway between the French cities of Perpignan and Marseille. A three-axis sonic anemometer was mounted on top of the meteorological mast at 7 m MSL. An underwater motion package was installed to give the six

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Yizhak Feliks

days were analyzed in order to make sure transient response to the initial condition was forgotten owing to the damping of the motion, and that the solution is already in its attractor. In Figs. 1 and 2 the diurnal cycle of the breeze at days 641 and 866 is shown. Hour 0h is the time when surface temperature over the sea and land is uniform. This hour approximately corresponds to 0600 local time (LT) in the summer in the eastern Mediterranean. The diurnal cycle near the coast at the lower

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