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Thomas Meunier, Claire Ménesguen, Richard Schopp, and Sylvie Le Gentil

( Armi et al. 1989 ) if they do not crash against sea mounts and collapse ( Schultz-Tokos et al. 1994 ; Richardson et al. 2000 ). A substantial volume of Mediterranean water gets trapped in each meddy; a 50-km radius feature’s transport is estimated to be equivalent to 10 days of Mediterranean outflow through the Gibraltar straight ( Armi and Zenk 1984 ; Schultz-Tokos and Rossby 1991 ). As 15 to 20 meddies were observed to form in a year ( Bower et al. 1997 ; Richardson et al. 2000 ), meddies

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A. C. Barbosa Aguiar, C. Ménesguen, S. Le Gentil, R. Schopp, and X. Carton

1. Introduction Subsurface vortices containing Mediterranean Water (MW; warm and salty) can easily be identified in seismic imaging because of the strong small-scale temperature gradient observed on their periphery ( Gonella and Michon 1988 ; Holbrook et al. 2003 ; Nandi et al. 2004 ; Biescas et al. 2008 ). The vast majority of these structures have clockwise rotation, and the term meddy is widely used to refer to an anticyclonic eddy of MW. Nonetheless, several observations have put in

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Thomas Meunier, Enric Pallàs Sanz, Miguel Tenreiro, José Ochoa, Angel Ruiz Angulo, and Christian Buckingham

100 km). Similar patterns were observed in seismic imagery along the edges of Agulhas rings ( Rice et al. 2013 ) and Kuroshio warm-core rings ( Yamashita et al. 2011 ). Conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) and microstructure observations ( Ruddick and Bennett 1985 ; Schmitt et al. 1986 ) also show similar patterns around Gulf Stream rings. These layered patterns are also reminiscent of the structures observed to form above, below, and near the edges of, Mediterranean (Sea) water eddies, or

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Alain Colin de Verdière and Michel Ollitrault

009966 . Lamas , L. , Á. Peliz , I. Ambar , A. B. Aguiar , N. Maximenko , and A. Teles-Machado , 2010 : Evidence of time-mean cyclonic cell southwest of Iberian Peninsula: The Mediterranean outflow-driven β -plume? Geophys. Res. Lett. , 37 , L12606 , doi: 10.1029/2010GL043339 . Large , W. G. , and S. G. Yeager , 2004 : Diurnal to decadal global forcing for ocean and sea-ice models: The data sets and flux climatologies. NCAR Tech. Rep. TN-460+STR, 122 pp . Lavender , K. L

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Benjamin A. Storer, Francis J. Poulin, and Claire Ménesguen

the source water originates from the Mediterranean Sea ( Serra et al. 2005 ; Aiki and Yamagata 2004 ). These Mediterranean eddies are predominantly anticyclonic in nature and are referred to as Meddies. Other examples of subsurface mesoscale eddies can be found in the Arctic Canadian Basin, recently investigated by Zhao and Timmermans (2015) , the Red Sea (Reddies), the Persian Gulf (Peddies), and others [see Ciani (2016) and Ciani et al. (2015) for a review of surface and interior mesoscale

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C. Ménesguen, S. Le Gentil, P. Marchesiello, and N. Ducousso

baroclinic instability) using two different formalisms: a pseudospectral QG model and a finite-difference PE model. Our N / f ratio is 28, which accounts for North Atlantic dynamics near the Mediterranean outflow, from the surface to 2400-m depth. Our setup and tools are similar to that of Capet et al. (2016) , except that we do not focus on surface-intensified dynamics. Rather, we investigate a weakly baroclinically unstable interior vortex in the regime represented by a low Rossby number and

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Rémi Tailleux

present-day ocean outside such regions as the Arctic Ocean or Mediterranean Sea, where it is currently not defined. Indeed, its relatively high computational cost makes its use prohibitive in numerical ocean modeling studies; its lack of mathematically explicit form forbids its use in theoretical studies of the ocean circulation, and its nonmateriality makes its use in inverse studies of ocean mixing or in the analysis of water masses using Walin’s (1982) approach conceptually problematic, owing to

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