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S. Gualdi, S. Somot, L. Li, V. Artale, M. Adani, A. Bellucci, A. Braun, S. Calmanti, A. Carillo, A. Dell'Aquila, M. Déqué, C. Dubois, A. Elizalde, A. Harzallah, D. Jacob, B. L'Hévéder, W. May, P. Oddo, P. Ruti, A. Sanna, G. Sannino, E. Scoccimarro, F. Sevault, and A. Navarra

THE PROBLEM OF THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION CLIMATE SIMULATIONS. A multimodel system for the Mediterranean region improves simulation of physical processes involved in the complex, intricate interaction of land, air, and sea. The climate of the Mediterranean region, defined here as the area including the Mediterranean Sea and the surrounding areas, is determined by the interaction between midlatitude and subtropical circulation regimes with the complex morphology (mountain chains and land–sea

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Earl E. Gossard

Seasonal charts of air-sea difference in refractive index are presented for the Mediterranean and Southeast Asia areas. The charts are discussed briefly in terms of the climatic regimes of the area, and applications to extended radar coverage are suggested.

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Riccardo Farneti, Stefano Salon, Alessandro Crise, and Rodney Martinez

BACKGROUND. The Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas, though geographically different, present many interesting analogies when climatic change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation strategies are addressed. Both basins are, in different measures, affected by major natural pressures. Changes in sea surface temperature, storm tracks, frequency of extreme events, sea level rise, and ocean acidification exert unprecedented pressure on the marine ecosystem. These pressures are commonly entangled with

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P. Drobinski, V. Ducrocq, P. Alpert, E. Anagnostou, K. Béranger, M. Borga, I. Braud, A. Chanzy, S. Davolio, G. Delrieu, C. Estournel, N. Filali Boubrahmi, J. Font, V. Grubišić, S. Gualdi, V. Homar, B. Ivančan-Picek, C. Kottmeier, V. Kotroni, K. Lagouvardos, P. Lionello, M. C. Llasat, W. Ludwig, C. Lutoff, A. Mariotti, E. Richard, R. Romero, R. Rotunno, O. Roussot, I. Ruin, S. Somot, I. Taupier-Letage, J. Tintore, R. Uijlenhoet, and H. Wernli

–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) to the east ( Rodwell and Hoskins 1996 ). All these influences lead to a large variability at different scales, going from the multidecadal scale to the mesoscale. Indeed, the complex geography of the region, which features a nearly enclosed sea with high sea surface temperature (SST) during summer and fall, surrounded by very urbanized littorals and mountains from which numerous rivers originate ( Fig. 1 ), plays a crucial role in steering airflow. The Mediterranean Sea acts as a

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Philippe Ricaud, Régina Zbinden, Valéry Catoire, Vanessa Brocchi, François Dulac, Eric Hamonou, Jean-Christophe Canonici, Laaziz El Amraoui, Sébastien Massart, Bruno Piguet, Uri Dayan, Pierre Nabat, Jean Sciare, Michel Ramonet, Marc Delmotte, Alcide di Sarra, Damiano Sferlazzo, Tatiana di Iorio, Salvatore Piacentino, Paolo Cristofanelli, Nikos Mihalopoulos, Giorgos Kouvarakis, Michael Pikridas, Chrysanthos Savvides, Rodanthi-Elisavet Mamouri, Argyro Nisantzi, Diofantos Hadjimitsis, Jean-Luc Attié, Hélène Ferré, Yannick Kangah, Nizar Jaidan, Jonathan Guth, Patrick Jacquet, Stéphane Chevrier, Claude Robert, Aurélien Bourdon, Jean-François Bourdinot, Jean-Claude Etienne, Gisèle Krysztofiak, and Pierre Theron

pollution above the Mediterranean often exceeds the concentrations observed over most of the rest of Europe. This is due to the convergence of European, African, and Asian polluted air masses, the absence of rain to cleanse the atmosphere, and the high insolation that favors the formation of secondary pollutants such as ultrafine particles or ozone. Aerosol pollution might originate from various natural sources such as the African and Arabian deserts, active volcanoes, vegetation, or the sea surface

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Vlado Malačič and Nedjeljka Žagar

regions around the Mediterranean Sea. In contrast, marine icicles that form on coastal constructions (e.g., on piers and railings) are relatively rare events in the Mediterranean. The freezing point of seawater depends on salinity. For salinities around 37 practical salinity units (PSU; UNESCO 1978 ), which is typical for the Mediterranean, the freezing point is around –2.1°C. The freezing point decreases as salinity increases so that for every 5-PSU increase, the freezing point decreases by 0.28°C

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Véronique Ducrocq, Isabelle Braud, Silvio Davolio, Rossella Ferretti, Cyrille Flamant, Agustin Jansa, Norbert Kalthoff, Evelyne Richard, Isabelle Taupier-Letage, Pierre-Alain Ayral, Sophie Belamari, Alexis Berne, Marco Borga, Brice Boudevillain, Olivier Bock, Jean-Luc Boichard, Marie-Noëlle Bouin, Olivier Bousquet, Christophe Bouvier, Jacopo Chiggiato, Domenico Cimini, Ulrich Corsmeier, Laurent Coppola, Philippe Cocquerez, Eric Defer, Julien Delanoë, Paolo Di Girolamo, Alexis Doerenbecher, Philippe Drobinski, Yann Dufournet, Nadia Fourrié, Jonathan J. Gourley, Laurent Labatut, Dominique Lambert, Jérôme Le Coz, Frank S. Marzano, Gilles Molinié, Andrea Montani, Guillaume Nord, Mathieu Nuret, Karim Ramage, William Rison, Odile Roussot, Frédérique Said, Alfons Schwarzenboeck, Pierre Testor, Joël Van Baelen, Béatrice Vincendon, Montserrat Aran, and Jorge Tamayo

HyMeX-SOP1 collected unprecedented observations of atmosphere, ocean, land, and rivers to improve the knowledge and prediction of the most damaging natural hazards in the Mediterranean. The distinctive topography and geographical location of the Mediterranean basin ( Fig. 1 ) make the region prone to heavy precipitation and flash floods. Most of these events occur in autumn (September–November) over the western Mediterranean. The Mediterranean Sea acts as a vast heat and moisture source from

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Mario Marcello Miglietta and Richard Rotunno

developed for the U.S. Midwest should be modified or adapted to the peculiar Mediterranean environment. In particular, the role of the warm Mediterranean sea surface and the presence of a very long and complex coastline should be properly investigated and analyzed. In the United States, watches and warnings are issued mainly based on observed data; as discussed in Brotzge and Donner (2013) , weather radar is the primary tool for the detection of supercell thunderstorms, allowing the identification of

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Katrina S. Virts, John M. Wallace, Michael L. Hutchins, and Robert H. Holzworth

cyclone activity ( Hoskins and Valdes 1990 ). Wintertime cyclones are also observed over the Mediterranean Sea ( Alpert et al. 1990 ). Until recently, lightning climatologies have been based on station data or local lightning networks, most of which are regional or national in scope. Global satellite-based lightning monitoring began in the 1970s ( Turman 1978 , and references therein; Orville and Spencer 1979 ), and statistically significant lightning climatologies became available with the

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Lcdr. E. C. Scully

Summertime in the Mediterranean is the season of the best weather. The impression that the June-October period is sunshine and cumulus fails to take account of cyclonic development in Northwest Africa. The small rapidly moving cyclonic cells, land and sea breeze and cyclongenesis over water in the Western Mediterranean make forecasting using climatological records an unpredictable procedure.

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