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Ichiro Fukumori, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Tong Lee

1. Introduction The Mediterranean Sea, being a semienclosed basin, is often considered a test bed for studying ocean general circulation. Its relatively small size in comparison with the global ocean is conducive to synoptic observations [e.g., the Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean program; POEM Group (1992) ] and high-resolution numerical modeling (e.g., Korres et al. 2000 ). Yet its basin-wide circulation cannot be considered in isolation. Exchange through the Strait of

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Dimitris Menemenlis, Ichiro Fukumori, and Tong Lee

1. Introduction The sea level difference between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea has been attributed mostly to the following: tides (e.g., Brandt et al. 2004 ), atmospheric pressure fluctuations (e.g., Tsimplis and Josey 2001 ), steric contributions (e.g., Cazenave et al. 2002 ), and geostrophic or hydraulic controls within the Strait of Gibraltar (e.g., Ross and Garrett 2000 ). Some studies ( Fukumori et al. 2007 ; García-Lafuente et al. 2002a , b ; Garrett 1983 ), however

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A. Köhl, D. Stammer, and B. Cornuelle

freshwater. Moreover, no relaxation was applied in the Strait of Gibraltar since the Mediterranean Sea is part of the model domain. As a result, in our runs all sources for heat and freshwater reside in the surface boundary only. The model topography was derived from the Smith and Sandwell (1997) topography provided on a 1/30° horizontal resolution and 5′ Gridded Earth Topography (ETOPO5) poleward of 72.006° latitude. In each 1° box, the median of the ETOPO5 data was calculated and the resulting

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D. E. Harrison and Mark Carson

cooling along the far western parts of the North Pacific, beginning with cooling in the southern Bering Sea then warming off the Kamchatka Peninsula and warming and cooling regions from Korea down to the Philippines. The main Indian Ocean trend feature is cooling roughly between 10°S and the equator; elsewhere, there are only scattered small areas of warming and cooling. The Mediterranean exhibits cooling over its eastern half and both warming and cooling over its western half. At 300 m much less of

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Reiner Schlitzer

bathymetric data and averaged over grid cells. Model depths over ridges and in narrow channels are adjusted manually to respective sill or channel depths. The model has three open boundaries, along which ocean properties and transports are prescribed in each model layer. They are located at the exit of the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, and Persian Gulf. These three marginal seas are not modeled explicitly, but their impact on the global circulation is taken into account. a. Independent parameters The

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Claudia Pasquero and Eli Tziperman

: Compensation of horizontal temperature and salinity gradients in the ocean mixed layer. Science , 283 , 526 – 529 . Schott , F. , M. Visbeck , and U. Send , 1994 : Open ocean deep convection, Mediterranean and Greenland Seas. Ocean Processes in Climate Dynamics, P. Malafiotte-Rizzoli and A. Robinson, Eds., Kluwer Academic, 203–225 . Send , U. , and J. Marshall , 1995 : Integral effects of deep convection. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 25 , 855 – 872 . Titz , S. , T. Kuhlbrodt , and U

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