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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

850 hPa. 4.2. Nonlocal responses of air temperature to LULCC In addition to local responses, we also found significant nonlocal responses of tropospheric air temperatures to LULCC ( Figure 5 ). The 850-hPa air temperature shows a significant decrease over the leeward side of LULCC regions (e.g., East Asia to the western North Pacific Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea to North Africa, North America to the Atlantic Ocean, and North America to the eastern Pacific Ocean; see Figure 5 ). Similar to the

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Nazzareno Diodato and Gianni Bellocchi

assesses temporal variability of extreme rainfall observations (from 1801 to 2009) to reveal whether climate change may have implications on the extreme rainfall hazard. The case of Sicily (Italy), the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and centrally situated in the basin, was examined with more detail (section 3.2) because its lands have been the theatre of storms of exceptional intensities in the autumn of 2009. Section 4 discusses possible implications between extreme rain events and their

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Pierre Valty, Olivier de Viron, Isabelle Panet, and Xavier Collilieux

) conclude the opposite for the same region. In southeastern Europe ( Figure 1 ), the impact of the NAO on hydrological data such as river flows has also been shown, in particular for the Danube—for example, Rîmbu et al. (2002) and I. Mares et al. (2006, meeting presentation)—where this impact has been linked with interannual precipitation over this basin ( Mares et al. 2012 ). Concerning water mass, recent studies have shown a significant NAO impact on the Mediterranean Sea oceanic mass at interannual

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A. Birol Kara, Charlie N. Barron, Alan J. Wallcraft, and Temel Oguz

the relationship between sea surface height and subsurface temperature structure in the Atlantic Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett. 28 : 3943 – 3946 . Molinero , J. C. , F. Ibanez , S. Souissi , M. Chifflet , and P. Nival . 2005 . Phenological changes in the northwestern Mediterranean copepods Centropages typicus and Temora stylifera linked to climate forcing. Oecologia 145 : 640 – 649 . Oguz , T. and D. Gilbert . 2007 . Abrupt transitions of the top-down controlled Black Sea

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Rosa Lasaponara, Antonio Lanorte, and Stefano Pignatti

spectral channels for the study area. The selected study area constitutes a complex morphological unit in which mountain landscapes are close to the Sinni River alluvial plan. It is characterized by complex topography with altitude varying from 400 to 1900 m above sea level (ASL) and mixed vegetation covers. Between 400 and 600 m, natural vegetation is constituted by the Mediterranean scrubs, xeric prairies, and Mediterranean shrubby formations. In the strip included between 600 and 1000–1200 m, the

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Mark R. Jury

(shaded) and SST (labeled); (c) MERRA boundary layer winds with rotors highlighted; and (d) radiosonde profile at Abha [dot in (a)]. Low-level winds of 25 August 2009 ( Figure 2c ) reflect confluence of Arabian easterlies, Mediterranean northwesterlies, and African southwesterlies. Two rotors were evident, infolding the winds southeastward in the Red Sea. The radiosonde profile at Abha ( Figure 2d ) reveals a moist unstable lapse rate (−7°C km −1 , 700–500 hPa) and midlevel easterly wind jet (17 m s

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Evgeny A. Podolskiy

A. Esposito . 2004 . Sea level in Roman time in the central Mediterranean and implications for recent change. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 224 : 563 – 575 . Larsen , C. F. , R. J. Motyka , J. T. Freymuller , K. A. Echelmeyer , and E. R. Ivins . 2005 . Rapid viscoelastic uplift in southern Alaska caused by post Little Ice Age glacial retreat. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 237 : 548 – 560 . Mangiarotti , S. , A. Cazenave , L. Soudarin , and J. F. Crétaux . 2001

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Gian Villamil-Otero, Ryan Meiszberg, Jennifer S. Haase, Ki-Hong Min, Mark R. Jury, and John J. Braun

1. Introduction One of the challenges of short-term (multihour) coastal weather forecasting is factoring in the variable influence of sea-breeze circulations. These often lead to abrupt wind shifts, convergence lines, and thunderstorm downdrafts that impact aviation. Despite extensive research ( Atkins and Wakimoto 1997 ), it is difficult to accurately predict the intensity and position of sea breezes and their interaction with the synoptic flow. The classical definition of sea breeze is a

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Arne Melsom, Steven D. Meyers, James J. O'Brien, Harley E. Hurlburt, and Joseph E. Metzger

. Res . 857 – 868 . MGA Abstract Enfield , D. , and J. S. Allen , 1980 . On the structure and dynamics of monthly mean sea level anomalies along the Pacific coast of North and South America. J. Phys. Oceanogr 10 : 557 – 578 . MGA Abstract Feliks , Y. , and M. Ghil , 1993 . Downwelling-front instability and eddy formation in the eastern Mediterranean. J. Phys. Oceanogr 23 : 61 – 78 . Fjørtoft , R. , 1950 . Application of integral theorems in deriving criteria of stability

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M. N. Raphael

is sometimes observed. The synoptic conditions described above are peculiar to the period from fall to early spring when the surface high pressure, which dominates the southwest coast of the United States from spring to summer, moves farther south, as is typical of the Mediterranean climate regime. Also in summer, the monsoonal flow over the southwestern United States, coupled with the intensification and northward movement of the Pacific high, promotes westerly flow at local and regional levels

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