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Alfonso Senatore, Giuseppe Mendicino, Hans Richard Knoche, and Harald Kunstmann

1. Introduction Observations show that sea surface temperatures (SSTs) often play a major role in midlatitude extreme precipitation events (e.g., caused by atmospheric rivers; Neiman et al. 2013 ). This is especially true in areas such as the Mediterranean ( Rebora et al. 2013 ), where sea–atmosphere interactions are influenced by complex coastal orography, leading to local meteorological processes whose complexity is often not fully interpreted by models ( Senatore et al. 2011 ). The impact

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Alejandro Hermoso, Victor Homar, and Arnau Amengual

.g., Ramis et al. 1994 ; Doswell et al. 1998 ; Homar et al. 2002 ; Martín et al. 2007 ; Michaelides et al. 2018 ). The relatively warm Mediterranean Sea acts as a heat and moisture source during late summer and early autumn. Indeed, the maximum climatological frequency of flash flood producing HPEs occurs in autumn (e.g., Llasat et al. 2010 ). The combination of this factor with the presence of cold midlevel disturbances and maritime warm and moist air at low levels generates convective instability

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A. Senatore, S. Davolio, L. Furnari, and G. Mendicino

1. Introduction Unique morphological characteristics make the Mediterranean basin prone to natural hazards related to the water cycle ( Flaounas et al. 2019 ), in particular during autumn when the air–sea thermal contrast becomes remarkable. Steep slopes in the vicinity of coastal areas, and the Mediterranean Sea itself, which acts as a large source of moisture and heat, instigate rapid uplift of moist, unstable air, responsible for triggering condensation and convective instability processes

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Francisco Criado-Aldeanueva, F. Javier Soto-Navarro, and Jesús García-Lafuente

1. Introduction The Mediterranean Sea ( Fig. 1 ), a marginal basin located across a dynamic border that separates two different climatic regions (Europe and North Africa), extends over 3000 km in longitude and over 1500 km in latitude with an area of 2.5 × 10 12 m 2 , and it connects with the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar and with the Black Sea through the Turkish Bosphorus and Dardanelles Straits. Semi-enclosed basins such as the Mediterranean are suitable for the

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Sante Laviola, Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, Elsa Cattani, and Vincenzo Levizzani

Mediterranean basin. The Alps are responsible for such deflections for the Northern Atlantic systems and the Atlas Mountains for the southern ones. These systems transit over the warm Mediterranean and western Europe, and find favorable conditions for cyclogenesis over the Western Mediterranean ( Buzzi and Tibaldi 1978 ). Also, Mediterranean disturbances frequently develop as a consequence of the interaction of an unusually deep upper-tropospheric trough and cold air with the relative warmth of the sea

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Silvio Davolio, Francesco Silvestro, and Thomas Gastaldo

inland with heavy and persistent rainfall that became devastating floods in a few hours in small watersheds. In general, the precipitation systems affecting Liguria often originate over the Mediterranean Sea, and the interaction with the orography may enhance rainfall intensity. These are usually characterized by short durations (12–36 h) and high intensities ( Deidda et al. 1999 ; Boni et al. 2007 ). The polarimetric C-band radar that covers the region (location in Fig. 1b ) is therefore a

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William Amponsah, Lorenzo Marchi, Davide Zoccatelli, Giorgio Boni, Marco Cavalli, Francesco Comiti, Stefano Crema, Ana Lucía, Francesco Marra, and Marco Borga

, uncertainty assessment, and comparison with rainfall–runoff model results. 3. The 25 October 2011 flash flood in the Magra River basin The Magra River basin ( Fig. 2 ) is located in central-northern Italy, at the border between the Tuscany and Liguria regions, with highest elevation at 1900 m MSL, and drains to the Ligurian Sea. The total drainage area of the study basin is 1717 km 2 , of which the Vara River (the major tributary of the Magra River) drains 605 km 2 . The climate is Mediterranean with dry

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Roberto Corona, Nicola Montaldo, and John D. Albertson

, this strong seasonality is mainly controlled by atmospheric circulation patterns, most notably a strong subtropical high pressure cell that persists in the summer months, and its persistence is essential for future water resources sustainability, while the cold/wet season is affected by the arrival of midlatitude westerlies ( Rojas et al. 2013 ). In addition to the areas in and surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, this type of climate prevails in parts of western North America, South America, Western

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Xinxuan Zhang, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, Maria Frediani, Stavros Solomos, and George Kallos

and the Massif Central mountain range that exhibit frequent heavy precipitation and floods. A recent study ( Mehta and Yang 2008 ) about the Mediterranean basin indicates that heavy precipitation has peak frequency and accumulation over the mountainous regions according to satellite measurements. The areas along the Alpine foothills and the southern flanks of the Massif Central mountains are particularly under the influence of extreme rain accumulations because the air from the Mediterranean Sea

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Jonathan Lala, Seifu Tilahun, and Paul Block

relied on SST and sea level pressure (SLP) from the Atlantic–Mediterranean, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, although recent research has also highlighted the value of atmospheric variables ( Nicholson 2017 ), some of which are considered in this study (e.g., geopotential height and zonal wind). Moisture transport to the Ethiopian Highlands is primarily sourced from the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Mediterranean Sea ( Viste and Sorteberg 2013 ; Segele et al. 2015 ). A trajectory analysis conducted

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