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Christophe Accadia, Stefano Zecchetto, Alfredo Lavagnini, and Antonio Speranza

demanding in basins like the Mediterranean Sea, where coastlines are mostly surrounded by mountain ranges that strongly affect the local wind circulation ( Zecchetto and Cappa 2001 ; Lavagnini et al. 2006 ). In fact, under particular weather conditions, surrounding orography can funnel wind flows with wind speeds that can reach gale strengths. Figure 1 schematically shows the geography of the Mediterranean area, together with the main local winds. The numerical description of surface winds in such

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Edoardo Mazza, Uwe Ulbrich, and Rupert Klein

the result of the tropical transition of originally baroclinic cyclones ( McTaggart-Cowan et al. 2010a , b ; Chaboureau et al. 2012 ; Cioni et al. 2016 ). Medicanes form in an environment generally not favorable for standard TC genesis, as observed in the tropics. They are usually subsynoptic in scale following a contraction of the precursor cyclone and are associated with strong surface wind gusts, along with intense precipitation. The Mediterranean Sea is a highly cyclogenetic area, the vast

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Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, and Richard Rotunno

1. Introduction It is well known that the western Mediterranean Sea is an important cyclogenetic area (for a recent review of the observational literature, see Campins et al. 2006 ). As the Mediterranean Sea is bordered by long and tall mountain chains, orographic lee cyclogenesis [ Buzzi and Tibaldi (1978) ; for reviews see Pierrehumbert (1984) , or more recently, Davis and Stoelinga (1999) ] is often implicated in the formation of cyclones in this area. It is also true that, being a large

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Massimiliano Burlando, Djordje Romanić, Giovanni Solari, Horia Hangan, and Shi Zhang

events in an area of the Mediterranean region (i.e., the Ligurian and northern Tyrrhenian Sea), systematic research has recently been undertaken thanks to the creation of an extensive, permanent, and high quality wind monitoring network ( section 2 ) realized for two European Union (EU) projects, “Wind and Ports” (WP; Solari et al. 2012 ) and “Wind, Ports and Sea” (WPS; Repetto et al. 2017 ), which took place in the period between 2009 and 2015. The Wind Engineering and Structural Dynamics (Windyn

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R. J. Small, T. Campbell, J. Teixeira, S. Carniel, T. A. Smith, J. Dykes, S. Chen, and R. Allard

1. Background and aims a. Ligurian Sea: Meteorology and oceanography The Ligurian Sea, in the northwestern Mediterranean, comprises the ocean area east of the Gulf of Lion and north of the island of Corsica ( Fig. 1 ). The weather over the Ligurian Sea is strongly influenced by the surrounding landmasses, and in particular the mountain ranges of the Alps, Massif Central, and the Pyrenees. Cyclogenesis occurs in the lee of the Alps year-round, with a strong seasonal cycle: it is most common in

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S. Davolio, S. Della Fera, S. Laviola, M. M. Miglietta, and V. Levizzani

; Jansa et al. 2014 ) and the Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX, Drobinski et al. 2014 ). Such events are characterized by a pronounced large-scale trough, which slowly evolves eastward over the western Mediterranean Sea basin ( Grazzini 2007 ). However, the Vaia event turned out to be exceptional, not only in terms of wind and accumulated precipitation (up to 850 mm in three days, with a return period exceeding 100 years; ARPAV 2018 ), but also of integrated water vapor (IWV

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A. Bargagli, A. Carillo, G. Pisacane, P. M. Ruti, M. V. Struglia, and N. Tartaglione

Venice and of the state of the Mediterranean Sea, which has been recently developed at the National Environmental and Energy Agency (ENEA). The operative integrated system consists of a limited area model (the Bologna Limited Area Model, BOLAM), coupled with a wave model (WAM) and a high-resolution shallow water model (the two-dimensional Princeton Ocean Model, POM-2D) of the northern Adriatic Sea. Both BOLAM and WAM cover the whole Mediterranean basin. The atmospheric model is run over a wider

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Orit Altaratz, Zev Levin, Yoav Yair and, and Baruch Ziv

particles grew more slowly and charging occurred in later stages of the cloud life cycle. Such low concentrations of ice nuclei are often found in maritime clouds. The reviewed explanations clearly indicate that microphysical and cloud-scale dynamical processes are closely intertwined and that the differences in lightning activity in maritime and continental clouds is a reflection of other, more fundamental, differences. 2. The Mediterranean Sea As one of the major centers of electrical activity in the

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Luciana Bertotti, Luigi Cavaleri, Layla Loffredo, and Lucio Torrisi

1. Purpose of the work Nettuno is a high-resolution local-scale wind and wave forecast system operational in the Mediterranean Sea. Several parallel systems are available in this area, although often not on the whole basin. Some of these results are public domain (within limits), but a thorough analysis of the related performance is not a frequent product. A notable exception is the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) intercomparison exercise focused on

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L. Cucurull, F. Vandenberghe, D. Barker, E. Vilaclara, and A. Rius

conditions on 14 December are summarized in Fig. 2 . At 0000 UTC ( Fig. 2a ), the sea level high pressure area was located over Denmark (1044 hPa) and moved to Scotland at 2400 UTC ( Fig. 2c ). At the same time, a low pressure area developed in the Mediterranean Sea at 0000 UTC ( Fig. 2a ) with a 1008-hPa central pressure over Corsica and a secondary minimum over the Catalan coast at 2400 UTC ( Fig. 2c ). At 850 hPa, the cold sector of the temperature field was located over eastern Europe ( Fig. 2b ) at

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