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Ichiro Fukumori, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Tong Lee

1. Introduction The Mediterranean Sea, being a semienclosed basin, is often considered a test bed for studying ocean general circulation. Its relatively small size in comparison with the global ocean is conducive to synoptic observations [e.g., the Physical Oceanography of the Eastern Mediterranean program; POEM Group (1992) ] and high-resolution numerical modeling (e.g., Korres et al. 2000 ). Yet its basin-wide circulation cannot be considered in isolation. Exchange through the Strait of

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Georgi Sutyrin, Alexander Stegner, Isabelle Taupier-Letage, and Samuel Teinturier

study of a barotropic eddy on a topographic slope. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 24 , 1587 – 1607 . Hamad , N. , C. Millot , and I. Taupier-Letage , 2005 : A new hypothesis about the surface circulation in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Prog. Oceanogr. , 66 , 287 – 298 . Hamon , B. , 1965 : The East Australian Current 1960–1964. Deep-Sea Res. , 12 , 899 – 921 . Jacob , J. P. , E. P. Chassignet , and W. K. Dewar , 2002 : Influence of topography on the propagation

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Jordi Isern-Fontanet, Mahesh Shinde, and Cristina González-Haro

1. Introduction The Mediterranean Sea is a hot spot for climate change and plays a major role in the climate variability over Europe. This has led to efforts being made to better characterize its surface currents and to develop numerical models of its circulation. However, the dynamics in most of the Mediterranean are characterized by a Rossby radius of deformation of the order of 10–15 km, which requires spatial resolutions higher than the available observations of surface velocities (~100 km

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Denis L. Volkov and Lee-Lueng Fu

south of the mean zero wind stress curl and the Ekman pumping here requires a southward transport ( Townsend et al. 2000 ). In addition, considerable variations in the wind stress curl over the subtropical North Atlantic fail to explain relatively small changes in the position of the AzC axis, observed with satellite altimetry ( Le Traon and De Mey 1994 ). At the eastern boundary, the subtropical North Atlantic connects to the Mediterranean Sea. Here, the dense Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW

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Nadia Pinardi, Paola Cessi, Federica Borile, and Christopher L. P. Wolfe

as temperature, salinity, and density ( Plumb and Mahlman 1987 ; Bachman and Fox-Kemper 2013 ). From the thickness-weighted velocity in Eq. (1) a transport streamfunction is calculated in density and latitude coordinates. In this paper the residual overturning circulation of the Mediterranean Sea is studied and compared to the Eulerian overturning circulation. The geometry and bathymetry of the Mediterranean Sea is described in Fig. 1 . Several ~500-m-deep sills subdivide the basin into areas

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Antoni Jordi and Sultan Hameed

1. Introduction Ocean convection is a key process for climate, ocean circulation, and the marine ecosystem that occurs in very few regions of the world. In particular, ocean convection to intermediate or full ocean depths has been observed in the Gulf of Lion (northwestern Mediterranean Sea) during the winter season (e.g., MEDOC Group 1970 ; Canals et al. 2006 ). This process shows high levels of interannual variability that is not well understood ( Mertens and Schott 1998 ). Atmospheric

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M. Susan Lozier and Laurie Sindlinger

1. Introduction Surface waters of the eastern North Atlantic that flow into the Mediterranean Sea through the Strait of Gibraltar are subject to an excess of evaporation over precipitation in this enclosed sea, making them more saline and dense before they exit the strait and return to the North Atlantic. After exiting the strait, these return waters mix with the surrounding waters in the Gulf of Cadiz ( Baringer and Price 1997 ) to produce a water mass known as Mediterranean Overflow Water

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Marco Zavatarielli and George L. Mellor

1384 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME2$A Numerical Study of the Mediterranean Sea Circulation MARCO ZAVATARELLI* AND GEORGE L. MELLORProgram in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey(Manuscript received 7 October 1992, in final form 12 August 1994) ABSTRAC'T A primitive equation ocean model that makes use of a curvilinear' orthogonal grid

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Jordi Isern-Fontanet, Emilio García-Ladona, and Jordi Font

their statistics. Several of such vortex censuses have been built in different parts of the World Ocean from observations of infrared imagery ( Brown et al. 1986 ; Lentini et al. 2002 ), a combination of climatological in situ data and satellite altimetry ( Goni and Johns 2001 ), or general circulation models ( Chassignet 1992 ). In the Mediterranean Sea, while there exists a wide literature on observational evidences of vortices, most of the studies on the general circulation have been more

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Alex Lascaratos and Miroslav Gačić

522 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUblE20Low-Frequency Sea Level Variability in the Northeastern Mediterranean ALEX LASCARATOSUniversity of Athens, Department of Applied Physics, Athens, Greece MIROSLAV GA~I~Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries, Split, Yugoslavia(Manuscript received 3 October 1988, in final form 9 October 1989) Analyse/of time series of one year of sea

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