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Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Fiona Lomas, and Thilo Kühne

waterspouts would be restrictive for some European countries. Several countries have a large part of their landscape covered by lakes (e.g., 187 000); others countries contain peninsulas (e.g., southern Italy). Other countries consist entirely of a single island (e.g., Malta in the Mediterranean Sea) or comprise archipelagos (e.g., Greece has more than a thousand islands). To accommodate these countries, in this article, the following tornado definition adapted from Rauhala et al. (2012) is used: a

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Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Christopher A. Davis, João R. Dias Pinto, James Doyle, Chris Fogarty, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Christian M. Grams, Kyle S. Griffin, John Gyakum, Robert E. Hart, Naoko Kitabatake, Hilke S. Lentink, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, William Perrie, Julian F. D. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Michael Riemer, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Yujuan Sun, and Fuqing Zhang

( Blake et al. 2013 ). Contributions from both tropical and baroclinic energy sources caused Sandy to reintensify as it approached the coastline ( Galarneau et al. 2013 ; Shin and Zhang 2017 ). The TC followed an atypical track northwestward toward the Northeast United States, rather than out to sea, fostered by interaction with an upstream trough ( Barnes et al. 2013 ; Qian et al. 2016 ) of the type identified by Fujiwhara (1931) , the practical predictability of which depended on the modeling

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Julia H. Keller, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, Heather M. Archambault, Lance Bosart, James D. Doyle, Jenni L. Evans, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Kyle Griffin, Patrick A. Harr, Naoko Kitabatake, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Florian Pantillon, Julian F. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Ryan D. Torn, and Fuqing Zhang

-hPa waveguide as red contour separating high PV air (>3 PVU; orange shading) from lower PV air (<3 PVU; unshaded). Midlevel baroclinic zone as blue tilted surface. Trajectories of rapidly ascending air parcels as blue–red–blue lines, reflecting the diabatic PV modification of the parcels from low to high to low PVU, respectively. Mean sea level pressure (gray contours; every 8 hPa) and equivalent potential temperature (violet contours; 320 and 330 K) are indicated in the lower panel. [Figure 11a

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