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Mario Marcello Miglietta, Jordi Mazon, and Richard Rotunno

that many tornadoes occur near the Mediterranean coast, which is surrounded by steep mountains, we expect that the interaction with the orography, the land–sea contrast, and the intense air–sea interaction are important in the Mediterranean environment ( Lionello et al. 2006 ), determining significant meso- β - and meso- γ scale variations of the relevant instability parameters. This is very different from the more homogeneous, synoptic-scale setting typical for the severe convective weather of

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Charles A. Doswell III, Clemente Ramis, Romualdo Romero, and Sergio Alonso

precipitation events in the western Mediterranean. The western portion of the Mediterranean Sea ( Fig. 1 ) is that area enclosed by Spain, France, Corsica, Sardinia, northwestern Italy, Africa, and lands nearby ( Meteorological Office 1962 ). This region frequently is affected by heavy convective rain, especially during autumn. Along the Spanish Mediterranean coast there are many examples of high precipitation rates; for examples, see García-Dana et al. (1982) , Benet (1986) , Font (1983) , Fernández et

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Stefano Mariani, Christophe Accadia, Nazario Tartaglione, Marco Casaioli, Marco Gabella, Silas Chr Michaelides, and Antonio Speranza

most reliable space-borne rainfall measurements, because it was designed to provide three-dimensional maps of storm structures (information online at http://trmm.gsfc.nasa.gov/ ). The availability of TRMM PR measurements over the Mediterranean Sea and the island of Cyprus, in particular, was at the core of the European VOLTAIRE project—Fifth Framework Programme ( VOLTAIRE 2006 ). The project had as one of its main objectives the integration of TRMM data with ground-based observations, and in

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Oreste Reale and Robert Atlas

1. Introduction Two anomalous cyclones observed over the Mediterranean Sea at approximately 40°N in October 1996 are analyzed. These events, which had no resemblance with any typical midlatitude event (baroclinic or orographic cyclones), acquired some of the features of a tropical storm. They also seemed to be different from polar lows, not only because of the much higher sea surface temperatures (SSTs) involved, but also because of the cyclogenetic mechanism. In fact, according to Sardie and

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R. M. Clancy and LCDR W. D. Sadler

Mediterranean Sea. Proc. MTS '91 Conf, New Orleans, Mar. Technol. Soc., 154-158. [Available from the Marine Technology Society, 1828 L Street NW, Suite 906, Washington, DC 20036.]

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Karen S. Friedman, Todd D. Sikora, William G. Pichel, Pablo Clemente-Colón, and Gary Hufford

equatorward from polar regions, such as over the Great Lakes ( Minor et al. 2000 ), the Mediterranean Sea ( Rasmussen 1989 ), and off the west coast of the United States ( Monteverdi 1976 ; Locatelli et al. 1982 ). PMCs are defined as all meso- α -scale and meso- β -scale [using Orlanski’s (1975) scale definitions] cyclonic vortices poleward of the major frontal zones. The term polar low refers to a subset of polar mesoscale cyclones whose near-surface wind speed exceeds 15 m s −1 and whose scale is

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S. Davolio and A. Buzzi

frequency. Our intent is to explore the impact of rainfall assimilation at relatively high resolution, with a view to improving the short-range forecasts of two episodes of mesoscale phenomena typical of the Mediterranean area: a case of orographic precipitation over the Alps, and an occurrence of a “hurricane-like” vortex ( Rasmussen and Zick 1987 ) forming over the sea. In the section below a description of the meteorological model is provided. After a section devoted to the presentation of the

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Juanjuan Wang, Benxia Li, Zhiyi Gao, and Jiuke Wang

1. Introduction Chinese public wave forecasts are released by the National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center (NMEFC), including operational numerical forecasts and bespoke correction. The numerical forecasts provide wave products in the global ocean, northwest Pacific, and China Sea based on the WaveWatchIII model ( Wang and Yu 2009 ; H. Wang et al. 2016 ). They come from the Chinese Global Operational Oceanography Forecasting System (CGOFS v1.0), and the details are introduced in H

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Riccardo Mel and Piero Lionello

by a barotropic model such as HYPSE. In fact, HYPSE cannot describe the changes of SL due to changes of temperature and salinity of the water column (steric effects), because it adopts a fixed and uniform value for water density. Further, it cannot compute changes of the total mass of the Adriatic Sea, because it has no information on fluxes of mass across the Otranto Strait, which connects the basin to the rest of the Mediterranean Sea. In general, the physical mechanisms changing the background

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Elisa Tudurí and Clemente Ramis

1. Introduction The area of the Mediterranean Sea and surrounding lands comprising eastern Spain, southern France, Corsica, Sardinia, and northern Africa are known collectively as the western Mediterranean; see Fig. 1 ( Meteorological Office 1954 ). In this area, significant convective weather events ( Table 1 ) are not unusual, especially heavy rains, which are frequent during autumn, representing a climatic characteristic of the region. Most of the observational sites in eastern Spain have

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