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D. M. Rodgers, M. J. Magnano, and J. H. Arns

knowledge in improving weather forecasts. One type of MCS is the mesoscale convectivecomplex (MCC; Maddox, 1980). Within the continuum of convective weather, the MCC is perhaps thelargest and longest-lived of midlatitude thunderstormsystems. The geographic region typically affected bythis type of convective system is the central UnitedStates from the Rockies to the Appalachians. 'MCCsoccur less frequently east of the Appalachians, in thedesert Southwest, and in south central Canada. The definition of

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D. M. Rodgers, K. W. Howard, and E. C. Johnston

.Maddox, R. A., 1980: Mesoscale Convective Complexes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 61, 1374-1387. , and J. M. Fritsch, 1982: Mesoscale convective weather systems and aviation operations. AIAA-82-0015, Amer. Inst. Aeronaut. and Astronaut., New York, 8 pp. , and B. E. Heckman, 1982: The impact of mesoscale convective weather systems upon MOS temperature guidance. Preprints, Ninth Conf Weather Forecasting and Analysis, Seattle, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 214-218. , D. J. Perkey and J. M. Fritsch, 1981

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John A. Augustine and Kenneth W. Howard

MCSs with new mesoscale datasets will lead to better forecasts of these stormsystems and their attendant weather.700 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 116348 -, ,~x,. / $48 $48 FiG. 10a. Surface flow and surface equivalent potential temperature(K) analysis (dashed) for 0000 UTC 4 June 1985. The shaded arearepresents the -52-C canopy.- 320 324

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R. A. Maddox, D. M. Rodgers, and K. W. Howard

operationalnumerical models do not forecast this type of important mesoscale/large-scale interaction. The frequent occurrence of MCC systems over thecentral United States, where there are relatively densemeteorological observation nets, provides a uniqueopportunity for studying these systems, their internalstructures and circulations and interactions betweenthe background environment and large regions ofconvective storms. With this promising research poTABLE 1. Mesoscale Convective Complex (MCC) definition

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James L. Franklin and Daniel P. Brown

-air observations supplement the satellite and reconnaissance data. In key forecast situations, the kinematic and thermodynamic structure of the storm environment is obtained from dropsondes released during operational “synoptic surveillance” flights of NOAA’s Gulfstream IV jet aircraft ( Aberson and Franklin 1999 ). Several satellite-based technologies play an important role in the analysis of tropical weather systems. Foremost of these is multichannel passive microwave imagery [e.g., from the Tropical

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James L. Franklin, Richard J. Pasch, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven II, Miles B. Lawrence, Stacy R. Stewart, and Eric S. Blake

, ship and buoy reports, and weather radars. In key forecast situations, the kinematic and thermodynamic structure of the storm environment is obtained from dropsondes released during operational “synoptic surveillance” flights of NOAA’s Gulfstream IV jet aircraft ( Aberson and Franklin 1999 ). Several satellite-based remote sensors play an important role in the analysis of tropical weather systems. Foremost of these is multichannel passive microwave imagery [e.g., from the Tropical Rainfall

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Mark A. Lander and Charles P. Guard

1. Introduction This summary of 1997 western North Pacific, north Indian Ocean, and Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclones (TCs) was compiled from the archives of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), Guam ( JTWC 1997 ). The JTWC is a joint U.S. Navy–Air Force activity with a forecast area of responsibility that extends from 180° westward to the coast of Africa, north and south of the equator. Seventy percent of the world's TCs develop in this area. The Naval Pacific Meteorology and

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Mark A. Lander, Eric J. Trehubenko, and Charles P. Guard

1. Introduction This summary of 1996 Eastern Hemisphere tropical cyclones (TCs) was compiled from the archives of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, Guam (JTWC). The JTWC is a joint U.S. Navy and Air Force activity with a forecast area of responsibility that extends from the 180° meridian westward to the coast of Africa, north and south of the equator. Seventy percent of the world’s TCs develop in this area. The Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Command at Pearl Harbor

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Edward W. Ferguson, Frederick P. Ostby, and Preston W. Leftwich Jr.

JULY 1987 FERGUSON, OSTBY AND LEFTWICH 1437 ANNUAL SUMMARY The Tornado Season of 1985 EDWARD W. FERGUSON, FREDERICK P. OSTBY AND PRESTON W. LEFTWICH, JR. National Severe Storms Forecast Center, Kansas City, MO 64106 ABSTRACT A review of tornado activity in the United States during 1985 is presented. Annual statistics are comparedwith both recent

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Mark A. Lander and Michael D. Angove

1. Introduction This summary of the tropical cyclones (TC) of the Eastern Hemisphere during 1995 was compiled from the archives of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, Guam (hereafter, JTWC). The JTWC was activated on 1 May 1959 as the Fleet Weather Central/Joint Typhoon Warning Center. It is a joint navy–air force activity. Located atop Nimitz Hill, Guam, the JTWC has a forecast area of responsibility (AOR) that extends from the 180° meridian westward to the coast of Africa, in

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