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Shoshiro Minobe, Masato Miyashita, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

and Godfrey 2003 ). Its influences on weather variability have been studied extensively. Sanders (1986) showed that the most rapid deepening bomb cyclones tend to move along the axis of the Gulf Stream. Strong ocean-to-atmosphere turbulent heat flux is observed over the Gulf Stream (e.g., Doyle and Warner 1993 ; Zolina and Gulev 2003 ). Kuo et al. (1991) and Reed et al. (1993) demonstrated that latent heat release is important in cyclogenesis using regional atmospheric models. Mesoscale

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Haiming Xu, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

L. O’Neill , 2009 : Coupling between sea surface temperature and low-level winds in mesoscale numerical models. J. Climate , 22 , 146 – 163 . Taft , B. A. , 1972 : Characteristics of the flow of the Kuroshio south of Japan. Kuroshio—Its Physical Aspects, H. Stommel and K. Yoshida, Eds., University of Tokyo Press, 165–216 . Thompson , G. , R. M. Rasmussen , and K. Manning , 2004 : Explicit forecasts of winter precipitation using an improved bulk microphysics scheme. Part I

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Nicholas A. Bond, Meghan F. Cronin, and Matthew Garvert

et al. (2008) and Torn and Hakim (2009) . The former study investigated the downstream predictability using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble prediction system; the latter study used an ensemble of NWP model simulations to explore the sensitivity of the modeled storm to initial conditions during the early portion of its extratropical phase. The standard deviations in 500-hPa geopotential height from these studies, in the vicinity of Tokage and downstream

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Shoshiro Minobe, and Shang-Ping Xie

(1988) report a surface convergence zone along the Gulf Stream during the Genesis of Atlantic Lows Experiment (GALE) in winter. Warner et al. (1990) and Doyle and Warner (1993) suggest that sharp sea surface temperature (SST) gradient causes the surface convergence zone using mesoscale model experiments, while Sublette and Young (1996) show that the convergence can be seen in the warm season. Using satellite images, Alliss and Raman (1995a , b) show that high clouds frequently occur over

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Kathryn A. Kelly, R. Justin Small, R. M. Samelson, Bo Qiu, Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Meghan F. Cronin

the midlatitude westerlies, passing over the cold coastal ocean and then over the warm WBCs. The associated air–sea interaction processes include phenomena that cover a wide range of scales, from frontal effects associated with the mesoscale sea surface temperature gradients across the WBCs, to the ocean basin and even global scales associated with the midlatitude storm tracks. Note that the term “storm track” frequently refers to (Eulerian) regions of high wind variability at synoptic time scales

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Xujing Jia Davis, Lewis M. Rothstein, William K. Dewar, and Dimitris Menemenlis

configuration is given in Menemenlis et al. (2005b) and in Fox-Kemper and Menemenlis (2008) . The ECCO2 simulation spans January 1979–November 2006. Its surface boundary conditions are obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) 40-year reanalysis (ERA-40; Uppala et al. 2005 ) except for precipitation, which is taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP; Adler et al. 2003 ). The ECMWF analysis ( Gibson et al. 1997 ) is used after August 2002 when the

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James F. Booth, Lu Anne Thompson, Jérôme Patoux, Kathryn A. Kelly, and Suzanne Dickinson

Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; Simpson et al. 1996 ), and free-tropospheric winds from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses Simmons and Gibson (2000) , Minobe et al. show that the SST has a significant influence on the tropospheric wind fields and precipitation patterns. The annually averaged rain pattern responds to changes in the location of the Gulf Stream in their 50-km-resolution atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) runs. The SST also

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Masami Nonaka, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, Nobumasa Komori, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, and Koutarou Takaya

from the atmospheric fields for 1 November 1982 based on the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40; Uppala et al. 2005 ). For the initial condition for the ocean model, the climatological temperature and salinity fields for January were taken from the World Ocean Atlas 1998 ( Antonov et al. 1998a , b , c ; Boyer et al. 1998a , b , c ) while no motion was assumed. Initially, sea ice was assigned with full concentration where the initial SST was

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Daisuke Hotta and Hisashi Nakamura

dataset, especially parameterized physical processes and associated diabatic heating fields, is rather sensitive to the model representation of physical processes involved in the heating and therefore still subject to some uncertainties. Bauer and Del Genio (2006) , for example, pointed out some deficiencies in midlatitude cloud representation in most of the climate and forecast models. Nevertheless, the decomposed heating components in the R-2 data are indispensable for our assessment. We have

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Young-Oh Kwon, Michael A. Alexander, Nicholas A. Bond, Claude Frankignoul, Hisashi Nakamura, Bo Qiu, and Lu Anne Thompson

: Extratropical atmosphere–ocean variability in CCSM3. J. Climate , 19 , 2496 – 2525 . Alexander , M. A. , L. Matrosova , C. Penland , J. D. Scott , and P. Chang , 2008 : Forecasting Pacific SSTs: Linear inverse model predictions of the PDO. J. Climate , 21 , 385 – 402 . Álvarez-García , F. , M. Latif , and A. Biastoch , 2008 : On multidecadal and quasi-decadal North Atlantic variability. J. Climate , 21 , 3433 – 3452 . Annamalai , H. , H. Okajima , and M. Watanabe

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