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Bruce Albrecht, Virendra Ghate, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Christopher Bretherton, Christian Schwartz, Edwin Eloranta, Susanne Glienke, Shaunna Donaher, Mampi Sarkar, Jeremy McGibbon, Alison D. Nugent, Raymond A. Shaw, Jacob Fugal, Patrick Minnis, Robindra Paliknoda, Louis Lussier, Jorgen Jensen, J. Vivekanandan, Scott Ellis, Peisang Tsai, Robert Rilling, Julie Haggerty, Teresa Campos, Meghan Stell, Michael Reeves, Stuart Beaton, John Allison, Gregory Stossmeister, Samuel Hall, and Sebastian Schmidt

camera mounted on the starboard/right wing of the GV. Shown are clouds observed along the flight path in the downstream direction (east to west) from (right) unbroken uniform stratus to (middle) mesoscale complexes to (left) shallow cumuli. More recent regional observational and modeling studies have also focused on the MBL cloud, aerosol, and precipitation structures in cloud regimes associated with the transition. During the Variability of American Monsoon Systems (VAMOS) Ocean

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Patrik Benáček and Máté Mile

the regional and global models ( Kazumori 2014 ). This may not be the case for each NWP mesoscale models. To ensure consistency in forecast biases, it would require one to employ for example a unified, multiscale physics package, which is very hard to achieve, especially when LAM models are tailored for high resolutions. This reinforces the need to deploy the VarBC-LAM method. The forecast impact of different VarBC configurations was evaluated during a two-month winter period. In this case, the

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Johna E. Rudzin, Lynn K. Shay, and Benjamin Jaimes de la Cruz

. Gray arrows represent ocean mixing. Black arrow represents wind forcing. From a TC forecasting perspective, Halliwell et al. (2011) stated that to correctly forecast intensity evolution within a TC, the ocean component of a coupled forecast model must accurately predict the pattern and rate of SST cooling. Furthermore, they found that the ocean model component is most sensitive to ocean initialization with regards to upper-ocean temperature and salinity profiles. However, the Caribbean Sea is one

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Christopher S. Bretherton, Isabel L. McCoy, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, Virendra Ghate, Andrew Gettelman, Charles G. Bardeen, Bruce A. Albrecht, and Paquita Zuidema

stratocumulus gradually breaks up. The 1992 Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX), based in the northeast Atlantic, documented the persistently decoupled nature of the cumulus-under-stratocumulus boundary layers in this transitional regime and was among the first field studies to use ground-based millimeter-wavelength radars for studying boundary layer cloud and precipitation processes and their mesoscale organization ( Albrecht et al. 1995 ). ASTEX included two 2-day intensive observing

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Johannes Mohrmann, Christopher S. Bretherton, Isabel L. McCoy, Jeremy McGibbon, Robert Wood, Virendra Ghate, Bruce Albrecht, Mampi Sarkar, Paquita Zuidema, and Rabindra Palikonda

which portions of the return flight. An additional constraint was that each case had to contain at least one full sampling sequence (below-cloud leg through above-cloud leg) on both the outbound/upwind and return/downwind flight. Due to variability in divergence of the sampled air mass, either the outbound or return aircraft data could span a longer distance. The resulting cases represented air masses on the scale of 500 km and spanned a significant amount of mesoscale variability. Cases are

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Mampi Sarkar, Paquita Zuidema, Bruce Albrecht, Virendra Ghate, Jorgen Jensen, Johannes Mohrmann, and Robert Wood

Lagrangian resampling 2 days later, constrains the “outbound” CA-to-HI flight path to a more northerly route. This route initially follows along 40°N, with the first boundary layer module beginning at 40°N, 130°W, or 10°N and at the western edge of the climatological maximum. Forward trajectories, calculated using HYSPLIT ( Stein et al. 2015 ) and the National Centers for Environmental Predication (NCEP) Global Forecast System meteorology, were initialized at 40°N, 130°W and further west at approximately

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