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David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, P.-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reinecke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, Ruth S. Lieberman, Brian Laughman, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Steven F. Williams, Gonzalo Hernandez, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Iain M. Reid, and Jun Ma

global, mesoscale, and regional models that proved to be highly valuable and often quite accurate on shorter time scales for final flight planning (see Table 3 ). These models are now being applied in concert with DEEPWAVE data analysis efforts to answer the science questions posed in Table 1 . To aid DEEPWAVE research, a comprehensive DEEPWAVE data archive and management plan has been developed (see appendix A ). T able 3. Forecasting and research models. FV = finite volume. DNS = direct

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Stephen D. Eckermann, James D. Doyle, P. Alex Reinecke, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Ronald B. Smith, David C. Fritts, and Andreas Dörnbrack

days. Figure 6 shows a sample forecast from the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS; Doyle et al. 2011 ), which provided regional NWP forecasts at 15 km horizontal resolution out to +60 h, updated every 6 h, throughout the dry-run period. The red–blue contours show +36 h forecasts of divergence D = ∇ h ⋅ U h of the horizontal wind velocity U h at a midstratospheric level of 2 hPa, valid at 1200 UTC 10 August 2013. The D forecasts at lower altitudes (not shown

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Christopher G. Kruse and Ronald B. Smith

-scale variations. A major objective here is to construct a method to isolate gravity wave perturbations from these synoptic-scale variations in realistic mesoscale fields. The simplest way to define gravity wave perturbation fields in realistic output is to subtract the mean (e.g., Doyle et al. 2005 ). This method may be appropriate for small domains, but gravity wave perturbations become increasingly dominated by synoptic-scale variations as domain size increases. A more sophisticated approach is to apply a

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

altitude range, the lidar observations are complemented with temperatures simulated numerically by the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model (ARW; Skamarock and Klemp 2008 ). Our goal is to determine the wave characteristics from the lower troposphere to the mesosphere. For this purpose, we combine and analyze the lidar temperature measurements and the validated mesoscale simulation results. Prerequisites of this approach are high-resolution numerical

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Ronald B. Smith and Christopher G. Kruse

. Kim and Arakawa (1995) and Kim and Doyle (2005) took a new approach using numerical mesoscale models over a variety of hill shapes to derive wave drag laws. Anisotropy was treated by using a range of wind directions over specified hill shapes. In the gravity wave “parameterization” literature, the authors worked not only to predict the gravity wave drag but also to predict how the associated momentum flux would be applied to the atmosphere above the rough terrain (e.g., Shutts and Gadian 1999

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Qingfang Jiang, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, and Bifford P. Williams

; Doyle et al. 2011 ) were applied to the DEEPWAVE study area to provide real-time forecast guidance during the field campaign period ( Fritts et al. 2016 ). COAMPS is a fully compressible, nonhydrostatic terrain-following mesoscale model. The finite-difference schemes are of second-order accuracy in time and space in this application. The boundary layer and free-atmospheric turbulent mixing and diffusion are represented using a prognostic equation for the turbulence kinetic energy budget following

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Stephen D. Eckermann, Dave Broutman, Jun Ma, James D. Doyle, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Katrina Bossert, Bifford P. Williams, David C. Fritts, and Ronald B. Smith

), with wind speeds increasing with height into a strong southwesterly tropospheric jet. High-resolution regional forecasts centered over Auckland Island using the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS: Hodur 1997 ; Doyle et al. 2011 ) and Mountain Wave Forecast Model ( Eckermann et al. 2006b ) predicted wave generation and penetration of orographic gravity waves into the stratosphere. Fig . 2. (a) Time evolution of horizontal wind vectors

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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

-Interim and MLS to obtain the quasi-stationary PW1 amplitude. Note that this analysis is done by using a 10-day window shifted by 1 day to eliminate the influence of migrating waves such as tides. Vertical energy fluxes ( ) over the SI at 4- and 12-km altitude were computed from mesoscale simulations of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model with a horizontal resolution of 6 km. The model was initialized and continuously guided by MERRA2 reanalyses. To compute the perturbations of pressure and

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Tanja C. Portele, Andreas Dörnbrack, Johannes S. Wagner, Sonja Gisinger, Benedikt Ehard, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, and Markus Rapp

levels, and a model top at 0.01 hPa, with numerical damping starting at 10 hPa ( Jablonowski and Williamson 2011 ). Moreover, mesoscale numerical simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF; 1 Skamarock et al. 2008 ; Skamarock and Klemp 2008 ) Model are performed. With the use of Advanced Research WRF version 3.7, atmospheric simulations are generated processing operational ECMWF analyses as initial and boundary conditions. Two nested model domains are centered at 43°S, 169°E over

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Ronald B. Smith and Christopher G. Kruse

, quasi-two-dimensional turbulence, and vortical modes . J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , 16 297 – 16 308 , doi: 10.1029/1999JD900068 . 10.1029/1999JD900068 Durran , D. R. , 1986 : Mountain waves. Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting , P. Ray, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 472–492. 10.1007/978-1-935704-20-1_20 Eliassen , A. , and E. Palm , 1960 : On the transfer of energy in stationary mountain waves . Geofys. Publ. , 22 , ( 3 ), 1 – 23 . Ern , M. , P. Preusse , M. J. Alexander , and C. D

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