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  • The Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean (DIMES) x
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Sophia T. Merrifield, Louis St. Laurent, Breck Owens, Andreas M. Thurnherr, and John M. Toole

associated with density fronts flow over rough topography, generating internal lee waves that radiate energy and provide power for turbulence in the stratified ocean interior (e.g., Nikurashin and Ferrari 2010 ). Water mass variability and strong mesoscale activity also precondition the water column for double-diffusive instability (e.g., Joyce et al. 1978 ). Because of the remoteness and harsh conditions, few direct measurements of mixing have been made in the Southern Ocean. A growing body of work

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Ross Tulloch, Raffaele Ferrari, Oliver Jahn, Andreas Klocker, Joseph LaCasce, James R. Ledwell, John Marshall, Marie-Jose Messias, Kevin Speer, and Andrew Watson

unsampled tracer may have spread. Ledwell et al. (1998) estimated the isopycnal diffusivity at the mesoscale in the North Atlantic pycnocline by fitting a two-dimensional Gaussian to the tracer patch measured 30 months after release. Assuming such a 2D Gaussian is perhaps reasonable in a region with weak mean flows, although even at their site, Ledwell et al. (1998) suspected a role played by gyre-scale strain in the mean flow in enhancing the apparent zonal diffusion. The assumption of 2D Gaussian

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