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Di Wu, Christa Peters-Lidard, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Walter Petersen

-time NU-WRF forecasts. By doing so, we would like to understand 1) if there is added value in high-resolution NU-WRF simulations using North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) forcing and 2) whether there is a positive impact on precipitation forecasts with high-resolution surface initialization. We first describe the experimental design, including the modeling system, configuration, and evaluation datasets. Next, we present an evaluation of the precipitation forecasts based on an archive for

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Munir A. Nayak, Gabriele Villarini, and A. Allen Bradley

an atmospheric river and mesoscale convective systems . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 140 , 358 – 378 , doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-11-00126.1 . Moore, J. T. , Glass F. H. , Graves C. E. , Rochette S. M. , and Singer M. J. , 2003 : The environment of warm-season elevated thunderstorms associated with heavy rainfall over the central United States . Wea. Forecasting , 18 , 861 – 878 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0434(2003)018<0861:TEOWET>2.0.CO;2 . Nakamura, J. , Lall U. , Kushnir Y. , Robertson A. W

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Young-Hee Ryu, James A. Smith, Mary Lynn Baeck, Luciana K. Cunha, Elie Bou-Zeid, and Witold Krajewski

, doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1978)106<0375:COMAOT>2.0.CO;2 . Market, P. , and Allen S. , 2003 : Precipitation efficiency of warm-season midwestern mesoscale convective systems . Wea. Forecasting , 18 , 1273 – 1285 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0434(2003)018<1273:PEOWMM>2.0.CO;2 . McAnelly, R. L. , and Cotton W. R. , 1989 : The precipitation life cycle of mesoscale convective complexes over the central United States . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 117 , 784 – 808 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<0784:TPLCOM>2

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Bong-Chul Seo, Witold F. Krajewski, Felipe Quintero, Mohamed ElSaadani, Radoslaw Goska, Luciana K. Cunha, Brenda Dolan, David B. Wolff, James A. Smith, Steven A. Rutledge, and Walter A. Petersen

(IFloodS) in collaboration with the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) at The University of Iowa. This field campaign sought to enhance the understanding of flood-related rainfall processes and the prediction capability in flood forecasting as well as to support activities of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Ground Validation (see, e.g., Hou et al. 2014 ; Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2017 ). A number of scientific instruments were deployed in central and northeastern Iowa to collect high

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Luciana K. Cunha, James A. Smith, Witold F. Krajewski, Mary Lynn Baeck, and Bong-Chul Seo

). The importance of radars for weather analysis, warnings, and forecasting has been proven throughout the years. However, as shown by various studies, the accuracy of SP radar QPE is limited, and applying this information in hydrology requires careful attention ( Smith et al. 1996 ; Baeck and Smith 1998 ; Borga 2002 ; Cunha et al. 2012 ; Berne and Krajewski 2013 ). With the goal of improving radar QPE, the NWS has implemented a few initiatives, one of the most recent ones being the upgrade of

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Bong-Chul Seo, Brenda Dolan, Witold F. Krajewski, Steven A. Rutledge, and Walter Petersen

for reference. a. IFC-SP product The Iowa Flood Center provides a real-time composite rain map with the grid spacing of approximately 500 m over the entire state of Iowa for the purpose of flood monitoring and forecasting. This composite rain map is constructed and updated every 5-min based on the reception of the real-time streaming radar Level II volume data using the Unidata Local Data Manager (LDM) and Internet Data Distribution (IDD) technology (e.g., Sherretz and Fulker 1988 ; Fulker et al

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Kumar Vijay Mishra, Witold F. Krajewski, Radoslaw Goska, Daniel Ceynar, Bong-Chul Seo, Anton Kruger, James J. Niemeier, Miguel B. Galvez, Merhala Thurai, V. N. Bringi, Leonid Tolstoy, Paul A. Kucera, Walter A. Petersen, Jacopo Grazioli, and Andrew L. Pazmany

sampling geometry, resolution, and temporal coverage of the conventional S- and C-band weather radars, which constitute many national weather radar networks ( Klazura and Imy 1993 ; Lapczak et al. 1999 ; Gekat et al. 2004 ), are designed primarily to observe mesoscale weather phenomena. Further, popular NEXRAD rainfall estimates are available at ~1–4 km 2 resolution ( Lin and Mitchell 2005 ; Zhang et al. 2011 ), while there is evidence that rainfall variability is significant below this resolution

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Merhala Thurai, Kumar Vijay Mishra, V. N. Bringi, and Witold F. Krajewski

case when the data from all the instruments were available. This event was a mixture of stratiform and convective echoes associated with a mesoscale convective system (MCS). The convection began to build in the early morning (0700 UTC) on 26 May along the low-level jet to the south and west of XPOL-5. The XPOL-5 region witnessed the mixture of stratiform and convective systems until 1900 UTC, with the most intense echoes covering most of XPOL-5 region between 1100 and 1300 UTC and 1500 and 1800 UTC

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