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J. C. Hermes, C. J. C. Reason, and J. R. E. Lutjeharms

the southern limb of the East Madagascar Current was previously thought to be a direct tributary to the Agulhas Current. However, satellite observations ( Lutjeharms 1988a ), drifter tracks ( Lutjeharms 1988b ), as well as hydrographic data ( Lutjeharms et al. 1981 ) have strongly suggested that this current retroflects south of Madagascar instead and may only contribute to the Agulhas Current in the form of mesoscale eddies. During ACSEX, it was found ( de Ruijter et al. 2004 ) that this region

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Clémentde Boyer Montégut, Jérôme Vialard, S. S. C. Shenoi, D. Shankar, Fabien Durand, Christian Ethé, and Gurvan Madec

, in good agreement with the 24 W m −2 of Düing and Leetmaa (1980) . However, when comparing our fluxes with the recent Southampton Oceanographic Center (SOC) climatology (see SSS02 , their Fig. 8), one realizes that we have a weaker shortwave gain in all basins and a stronger latent heat loss in the AS during monsoons. This is also the case for older climatologies and for the NCEP or European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) heat fluxes ( Weller et al. 1998 ). These fluxes

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