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J. J. Shi, W-K. Tao, T. Matsui, R. Cifelli, A. Hou, S. Lang, A. Tokay, N-Y. Wang, C. Peters-Lidard, G. Skofronick-Jackson, S. Rutledge, and W. Petersen

simulations are compared with in situ and satellite observations, including the Environment Canada King City operational dual-polarimetric radar located about 35 km southeast of the CARE site and CloudSat -observed reflectivities. In addition, mean cloud hydrometeor profiles from the simulations are examined. The summary and conclusions are given in section 6 . 2. Brief review of WRF, the Goddard physical packages, and the satellite simulators WRF is a next-generation mesoscale forecast model and

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Shelley L. Knuth, Gregory J. Tripoli, Jonathan E. Thom, and George A. Weidner

of forecasts from the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System. J. Climate , 18 , 1174 – 1189 . O’Connor , W. P. , D. H. Bromwich , and J. F. Carrasco , 1994 : Cyclonically forced barrier winds along the transantarctic mountains near Ross Island. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 122 , 137 – 150 . Parish , T. R. , and D. H. Bromwich , 1998 : A case study of Antarctic katabatic wind interaction with large-scale forcing. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 126 , 199 – 209 . Parish , T. R. , J. J. Cassano

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Jonathan J. Gourley, Yang Hong, Zachary L. Flamig, Li Li, and Jiahu Wang

propagation. The rainfall estimates from adjacent radars are then merged onto the same 4.76-km grid as the Gauge using an inverse distance-weighting scheme. The NCEP hourly multisensor precipitation analysis, or Stage IV hereinafter, combines rainfall estimates from WSR-88D radar, rain gauges, and satellite, with quality control performed manually by NWS forecasters. The NCEP Stage IV product is a mosaic of multisensor rainfall products produced by the individual River Forecast Centers (RFCs). Additional

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Frank S. Marzano, Domenico Cimini, Tommaso Rossi, Daniele Mortari, Sabatino Di Michele, and Peter Bauer

function of state. Details on the implementation of the 1D-Var retrieval algorithm will be given in section 3c . b. Millimeter-wave information content analysis Atmospheric profiles were extracted from Cycle31R2 of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecasting system (e.g., Bauer et al. 2006a , b ). The spectral model was truncated at wavenumber 799, which corresponds to a horizontal resolution of 25 km. Vertical resolution is achieved using 91 pressure levels between 0

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Feyera A. Hirpa, Mekonnen Gebremichael, and Thomas Hopson

1. Introduction The availability of high-resolution satellite precipitation products has made them very attractive for hydrological applications in regions that have less-dense and less-consistent ground-based measurements. Some of these products are available in (near) real time, making them suitable for flood-forecasting applications. The concept behind these high-resolution satellite precipitation algorithms is to combine information from the more accurate (but infrequent) microwave (MW

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Ali Behrangi, Koulin Hsu, Bisher Imam, and Soroosh Sorooshian

problematic areas for infrared-only algorithms: 1) screening out no-rain thin clouds (e.g., cirrus) and 2) estimating rain from relatively warm clouds. Analyzing a number of synoptic types including cold fronts, mesoscale convective systems, warm fronts, and cold-air convection, Cheng et al. (1993) concluded that the performance of rain area delineation using satellite data varies with synoptic type. Therefore, further distinction of different satellite grid boxes can be obtained by supplementing

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Rémy Roca, Philippe Chambon, Isabelle Jobard, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Marielle Gosset, and Jean Claude Bergès

. 2008a ). Its future evolution is also of concern in the context of the global climate change (e.g., Giannini et al. 2008b ). The need for a deeper understanding and forecasting capability of the WAM prompted the community to devote a vast observational program over the region, the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA; Redelsperger et al. 2006 ); the data from the AMMA campaign are used in this study. The main feature of the seasonal march of the monsoon is the rapid onset occurring in

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Axel Andersson, Christian Klepp, Karsten Fennig, Stephan Bakan, Hartmut Grassl, and Jörg Schulz

(2007) state that this is a highly required but difficult task, as differently calibrated time series and inhomogeneous data sources have to be combined while there is no comprehensive in situ validation data available. Alternatively, reanalysis datasets, such as the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40; Uppala et al. 2005 ) and ERA-Interim (ERA-Int; Simmons et al. 2007 ), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) NCEP-1 ( Kalnay et al

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