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Sheldon Drobot, James Maslanik, Ute Christina Herzfeld, Charles Fowler, and Wanli Wu

. 1996 ), 15-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analyses (ERA-15; Gibson et al. 1997 ), and the Climatic Research Unit/University of East Anglia CRUTEM2v (CRU; Jones et al. 2001 ) datasets were analyzed. The results indicated that temperature differences between the NCEP1 and CRU datasets were largest in winter and smallest in summer, with NCEP1 being warmer over North America; comparisons for NCEP1 and ERA-15 were similar, whereas ERA-15 was noticeably warmer than CRU

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Wanli Wu, Amanda H. Lynch, Sheldon Drobot, James Maslanik, A. David McGuire, and Ute Herzfeld

datasets over terrestrial regions of the Western Arctic. Earth Interactions 10 . [Available online at http://EarthInteractions.org .] . Grell , G. A. , J. Dudhia , and D. S. Stauffer . 1994 . A description of the Fifth-Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5). NCAR Tech. Note, NCAR/TN-398+STR, 117 pp . Hong , S. and H. Pan . 1996 . Nonlocal boundary layer vertical diffusion in a medium-range forecast model. Mon. Wea. Rev. 124 : 2322 – 2339 . Kalnay , E. Coauthors

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A. D. McGuire, J. E. Walsh, J. S. Kimball, J. S. Clein, S. E. Euskirchen, S. Drobot, U. C. Herzfeld, J. Maslanik, R. B. Lammers, M. A. Rawlins, C. J. Vorosmarty, T. S. Rupp, W. Wu, and M. Calef

considered for use in this study were datasets based on global-scale reanalyses, global climate datasets based on “interpolation” of surface observations, and a prognostic climate dataset based on a regional simulation of a mesoscale climate model. We organized three global reanalysis datasets at 25 km × 25 km resolution for the WALE region: 1) the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis project ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ), which we refer

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Ute C. Herzfeld, Sheldon Drobot, Wanli Wu, Charles Fowler, and James Maslanik

results in the form of maps and grid models and hence facilitate an understanding of the geographic complexity of the Arctic system and may assist in modeling its diverse climate. Central to the WALE project is the analysis and validation of the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5), which is a physical climate model developed with contributions from the climate research community (see www.mmm.ucar.edu ). In the case

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T. Scott Rupp, Xi Chen, Mark Olson, and A. David McGuire

1. Introduction Understanding fire’s linkage to climate and influence on land cover, as well as associated feedbacks, is critical for accurate forecasts of global change impacts. Fire is the keystone disturbance in terrestrial ecosystems globally ( Clark et al. 1997 ; Pyne 2001 ; Lavorel et al. 2005 ), burning 200–500 × 10 6 hectares (Mha) annually ( Goldammer and Mutch 2001 ). Fire represents the primary reinitiation mechanism throughout much of the boreal biome and is responsible for the

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