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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Fuqing Zhang

( Dai 2001 ; Cronin et al. 2015 ; Yamanaka et al. 2018 ). Owing to the prevailing importance of local mesoscale circulations in the MC, adequately modeling weather and climate here has been a major longstanding challenge—a challenge that links to weather prediction across a vast range of space and time scales ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ; Waliser et al. 2003 ; Dai and Trenberth 2004 ; Love et al. 2011 ). Here we seek to address this challenge by investigating diurnal convective systems in the MC

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James H. Ruppert Jr., Xingchao Chen, and Fuqing Zhang

circulations diurnally trigger deep moist convection each afternoon, which in turn grows upscale into vigorous mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) ( Houze et al. 1981 ; Johnson and Priegnitz 1981 ; Johnson 1982 ; Mapes and Houze 1993 ). These MCSs often propagate offshore overnight, enduring well into the next day ( Mori et al. 2004 ; Yamanaka et al. 2018 ). A prevalence of long-lived nocturnally offshore-propagating rainfall signatures has been noted in many regions of the world, though the root

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Giuseppe Torri, David K. Adams, Huiqun Wang, and Zhiming Kuang

; Higgins and Shi 2001 ; Bond and Vecchi 2003 ; Jones et al. 2004 ; Becker et al. 2011 ; Schreck et al. 2013 ; Thompson and Roundy 2013 ; Matsueda and Takaya 2015 ; Klotzbach et al. 2016 ; Zhou et al. 2016 ; Zheng et al. 2018 ; Tippett 2018 ; Barrett 2019 ), it is important to forecast the MJO accurately. Upon reaching the Maritime Continent, some MJO events weaken and do not propagate farther (e.g., Rui and Wang 1990 ; Salby and Hendon 1994 ; Zhang and Hendon 1997 ; Hsu and Lee 2005

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