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Matthias Grzeschik, Hans-Stefan Bauer, Volker Wulfmeyer, Dirk Engelbart, Ulla Wandinger, Ina Mattis, Dietrich Althausen, Ronny Engelmann, Matthias Tesche, and Andrea Riede

forecasting. In this study, we are focusing on the determination of initial fields for mesoscale atmospheric modeling. Here, mathematical problems are indeed still an issue, as pointed out (e.g., in Rosatti et al. 2005 ; Steppeler et al. 2006 ). Furthermore, mesoscale forecasts are highly sensitive to the quality of model physics including land surface exchange ( Cheng and Cotton 2004 ; Trier et al. 2004 ; Holt et al. 2006 ), boundary layer properties ( Bright and Mullen 2002 ; Berg and Zhong 2005

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Valérian Jewtoukoff, Riwal Plougonven, Albert Hertzog, Chris Snyder, and Glen Romine

the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF; Lebeau and Sanfourche 2011 ). Given the small scale of the trajectory, it is possible however that a mesoscale meteorological model would be suitable. A great deal of effort has been devoted in the last decade to improving atmospheric flow predictions using high-resolution mesoscale models ( Coniglio et al. 2010 ) and assimilating surface and radiosondes ( Faccani et al. 2009 ; Benjamin et al. 2010 ; Wheatley et al. 2012 ; Choi et

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Chanh Q. Kieu, Nguyen Minh Truong, Hoang Thi Mai, and Thanh Ngo-Duc

Prediction (NCEP) Global Forecast System (GFS) operational forecast with a resolution of 1° × 1°. The forecasted period is from 0000 UTC 17 October to 0000 UTC 21 October 2010 during which Megi was the most active with a near-90° direction change from west-northwest to north around 1200 UTC 20 October near the Philippines. The boundary conditions are updated every 6 h with no bogus vortex. Despite its low resolution, the GFS forecast appears to capture marginally a mesoscale cyclonic flow as early as

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Michiko Otsuka, Hiromu Seko, Masahiro Hayashi, and Ko Koizumi

cloud-affected IR radiances operationally, though the assimilation of high-frequency GEO radiances has the potential to benefit short-range forecasts ( Geer et al. 2018 ), as has been demonstrated recently in mesoscale systems utilizing Himawari-8 data ( Honda et al. 2018b ; Minamide and Zhang 2018 ; Okamoto et al. 2019 ). Although the direct assimilation of VIS reflectances operationally seems to take extra time, fast radiative transfer models are under development. Scheck et al. (2018

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W. L. Smith Sr, Qi Zhang, M. Shao, and E. Weisz

precipitation defined using the CPC morphing technique (CMORPH) ( Joyce et al. 2007 ) for the production of global precipitation estimates and the forecast results obtained by assimilating the PHSnAHI, PGSnAHI, and GHSnAHI data as well as for the control experiment and the results obtained from the China Meteorological Administration’s Global/Regional Assimilation And Prediction System’s Mesoscale (GRAPES-MESO) weather forecast system ( Long-Ke et al. 2011 ). It can be easily seen that PHSnAHI and PGSnAHI

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Ken Dixon, Clifford F. Mass, Gregory J. Hakim, and Robert H. Holzworth

lightning strike observed in the 5-min bin that includes the current time step, c. Model configuration All numerical weather simulations analyzed in this work are produced using version 3.4 of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with the Advanced Research dynamics solver (ARW). This is a fully compressible, nonhydrostatic model supported by the Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division (MMM) of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR; Skamarock et al. 2008 ). All simulations are

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Scott Longmore, Steven Miller, Dan Bikos, Daniel Lindsey, Edward Szoke, Debra Molenar, Donald Hillger, Renate Brummer, and John Knaff

public, as well as monitor weather activity (severe weather in particular) through public posts and images. While severe weather photography contains inherently more information than visual accounts relayed via plain text messaging or phone-in reports, fielding such information from social media can be challenging and time-consuming to forecasters, as they navigate repetitive, irrelevant, or even dubious, conflicting information. This paper presents a photo report (PR) system concept that bypasses

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Clement Ubelmann, Patrice Klein, and Lee-Lueng Fu

1. Introduction The measurement of wide-swath sea surface height (SSH) planned for future space missions [e.g., the Surface Ocean and Water Topography (SWOT) Mission; see Fu and Ferrari 2008 ; Durand et al. 2010 ) promises to observe the ocean mesoscale eddies at unprecedented spatial resolutions, reaching 15-km wavelength in most parts of the global oceans owing to the very low noise floor of the two-dimensional measurements. However, the temporal resolution (i.e., the time between satellite

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Scott D. Rudlosky, Michael J. Peterson, and Douglas T. Kahn

present sensors match the GLM performance throughout the GLM domain, so data from multiple lightning detection networks have been used for GLM preparation. National Weather Service (NWS) forecasters are most familiar with data from ground-based lightning detection networks because they have had access to the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) data over the contiguous United States (CONUS) since the early 1990s. Outside CONUS (OCONUS) forecasters have relied on data from the World Wide

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George R. Halliwell Jr., Gustavo J. Goni, Michael F. Mehari, Villy H. Kourafalou, Molly Baringer, and Robert Atlas

ocean forecast models. Satellite and in situ SST observing platforms are important in this regard, but provide limited temperature correction beneath the mixed layer. This is especially true during hurricane season when horizontal SST structure is substantially decoupled from the underlying mesoscale eddy structure (e.g., Scharroo et al. 2005 ). Argo floats correct temperature and salinity distributions over the upper 2000 m over large horizontal scales, but when used alone, space–time sampling is

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