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Matthias Grzeschik, Hans-Stefan Bauer, Volker Wulfmeyer, Dirk Engelbart, Ulla Wandinger, Ina Mattis, Dietrich Althausen, Ronny Engelmann, Matthias Tesche, and Andrea Riede

forecasting. In this study, we are focusing on the determination of initial fields for mesoscale atmospheric modeling. Here, mathematical problems are indeed still an issue, as pointed out (e.g., in Rosatti et al. 2005 ; Steppeler et al. 2006 ). Furthermore, mesoscale forecasts are highly sensitive to the quality of model physics including land surface exchange ( Cheng and Cotton 2004 ; Trier et al. 2004 ; Holt et al. 2006 ), boundary layer properties ( Bright and Mullen 2002 ; Berg and Zhong 2005

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Ulrich Löhnert, S. Crewell, O. Krasnov, E. O’Connor, and H. Russchenberg

1. Introduction Continuous profiling of the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere is becoming more and more important in support of mesoscale models, which are increasingly employed for numerical weather prediction (NWP). Especially the development of the boundary layer (BL), for example, its diurnal cycle or its influence on the initiation of convection, is crucial for the correct prediction of regional weather scales, including severe events, such as extreme precipitation. In this context the

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