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Andrew J. Monaghan, David H. Bromwich, Jordan G. Powers, and Kevin W. Manning

can be studied in greater detail than previously possible. Some specific examples include investigating where precipitation shadows occur and why mesoscale cyclones form with high frequency to the north of Ross Island. Here, a relatively new resource is used to explore the seasonal and annual climate of the McMurdo region with high spatial resolution: an archive of numerical weather model forecasts from the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS). AMPS is an experimental forecasting system

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Christopher L. Castro, Hsin-I Chang, Francina Dominguez, Carlos Carrillo, Jae-Kyung Schemm, and Hann-Ming Henry Juang

.g., Maddox et al. 1995 ). The resulting “bursts” of precipitation are typically associated with westward propagating mesoscale convective systems originating on the Mogollon Rim or Sierra Madre Occidental (e.g., Bieda et al. 2009 ). Dynamical downscaling can be basically classified into four types, according to Castro et al. (2005) and Rockel et al. (2008) : type 1, numerical weather prediction; type 2, retrospective historical climate simulation; type 3, seasonal climate forecasting; and type 4

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J. V. Ratnam, Swadhin K. Behera, Takeshi Doi, Satyban B. Ratna, and Willem A. Landman

1. Introduction The seasonal forecasting of precipitation of the rainfall season is beneficial for the agro-based local economies of South Africa, which get most of their rainfall during the austral summer season from December to February (DJF). It is also the season of high predictability ( Landman and Mason 1999 ; Landman et al. 2012 , 2014 ) largely owing to the dominant connections of the region’s rainfall with the tropical climate variations. The dynamical seasonal forecasting systems in

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Song-You Hong, Masao Kanamitsu, Jung-Eun Kim, and Myung-Seo Koo

global climatology. They emphasized the need for a realistic representation of convective organization over regions that have complex land–sea terrains. Their results also implied that low-resolution GCMs poorly represent mesoscale circulations having a distinct diurnal cycle and therefore reflect degraded global large-scale circulations. Sato et al. (2008) later demonstrated that a resolution of less than 7 km is necessary to realistically simulate the phase of the precipitation diurnal cycle over

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Qingtao Song, Dudley B. Chelton, Steven K. Esbensen, Nicolai Thum, and Larry W. O’Neill

downwind SST gradient, and 3) wind curl is linearly related to the crosswind SST gradient. Depending on the resolution of the SST fields used as the bottom boundary condition, most research mesoscale models and operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) models successfully reproduce a positive correlation between surface wind speed anomalies and SST anomalies ( Small et al. 2003 ; Song et al. 2004 ; Chelton et al. 2004 ; Small et al. 2005 ; Chelton 2005 ; Chelton and Wentz 2005 ; Haack et al

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James Doss-Gollin, Ángel G. Muñoz, Simon J. Mason, and Max Pastén

fraction of rainfall, and nearly all heavy rainfall, in the LPRB is associated with mesoscale convection ( Velasco and Fritsch 1987 ). Previous studies of organized convection and precipitation across subtropical continental South America have found close correspondence with the exit region of the low-level jets ( Velasco and Fritsch 1987 ; Marengo et al. 2004 ; Saulo et al. 2007 ; Salio et al. 2007 ), which is influenced in both summer and winter by midlatitude baroclinic wave trains that interact

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Guixing Chen, Ryuhei Yoshida, Weiming Sha, Toshiki Iwasaki, and Huiling Qin

mesoscale convective systems in South America using multiple satellite products and an object-based approach . J. Geophys. Res. , 116 , D08103 , doi:10.1029/2010JD015157 . Emanuel , K. , 1994 : Atmospheric Convection . Oxford University Press, 580 pp . Gale , J. J. , J. W. A. Gallus , and K. A. Jungbluth , 2002 : Toward improved prediction of mesoscale convective system dissipation . Wea. Forecasting , 17 , 856 – 872 . Huffman , G. J. , and Coauthors , 2007 : The TRMM

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Larry W. O’Neill, Steven K. Esbensen, Nicolai Thum, Roger M. Samelson, and Dudley B. Chelton

realistic, high-resolution, three-dimensional numerical simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model. This study is the first dynamical analysis of mesoscale wind–SST interactions in the extratropical Southern Ocean. Unique aspects of this region relevant for this simulation include: strong background winds between 10 and 16 m s −1 averaged over the 1-month simulation period; a much larger range of surface sensible heat flux perturbations of 80–100 W m −2 than seen in

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Ernesto Hugo Berbery

the monsoon. Nevertheless, models tend to drift toward their own climate, and the extent to which they still represent observed features needs to be carefully assessed. This paper investigates the mesoscale circulations at the core region of the North American monsoon, and, more specifically, the regional processes contributing moisture to the monsoonal precipitation. To achieve this, a climatology of the mesoscale circulations was prepared using 3 yr of regional analyses and short-term forecasts

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Julien P. Nicolas and David H. Bromwich

as part of the ongoing United States WAIS Divide deep ice coring project (information online at ). In this paper, we explore the West Antarctic climate through archived numerical weather forecasts from the Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS; Powers et al. 2003 ). This data source offers an unprecedented spatial resolution (20 km) on a continental scale, especially with the ability to capture the terrain complexity of WA. Although primarily designed for

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