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Thomas Kilpatrick, Niklas Schneider, and Bo Qiu

. The MABL convergence in both models is determined by hydrostatic pressure adjustments. However, in section 5 we show that for strong cross-front winds, MABL convergence is primarily a function of lateral heterogeneity in turbulent mixing. 3. Regional atmospheric model experiments The atmospheric response to an idealized midlatitude SST front is explored here with the nonhydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), version 3.3.1 ( Skamarock et al. 2008 ). WRF has been used to study

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Raffaele Montuoro, Hisashi Nakamura, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, and Lixin Wu

Loess filter to SST and THF derived from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR; Saha et al. 2010 ) to extract mesoscale SST and THF variability, respectively, and then examine their covariability. Figure 4a shows winter mean mesoscale THF overlaid on mesoscale SST in the KER from NCEP CFSR. There is a clear high-level coherence between mesoscale SST and THF with warm (cold) SST anomalies corresponding to positive (negative) THF out of

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Kazutoshi Sato, Atsuyoshi Manda, Qoosaku Moteki, Kensuke K. Komatsu, Koto Ogata, Hatsumi Nishikawa, Miki Oshika, Yuriko Otomi, Shiori Kunoki, Hisao Kanehara, Takashi Aoshima, Kenichi Shimizu, Jun Uchida, Masako Shimoda, Mitsuharu Yagi, Shoshiro Minobe, and Yoshihiro Tachibana

relative humidity (1000, 975, 950, 925, 900, 800, 700, 600, and 500 hPa), on a 0.1° latitude × 0.125° longitude grid. We also used hourly SAT, wind velocity, humidity, and precipitation forecast by the JMA mesoscale model, which was initialized with the 3-hourly mesoscale analysis data. Saito et al. (2006) described the mesoscale model and its evaluation in detail. The mesoscale analysis domain was 20°–50°N, 120°–150°E. Sounding and surface meteorological data from the cruise were not assimilated in

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Hyodae Seo

Coast at about 10°N, hugging the northern shoulder of the Great Whirl ( Swallow and Bruce 1966 ) and feeding into the Southwest Monsoon Current. Earlier studies suggest that the SC becomes unstable, leading to enhanced instabilities and nonlinearity ( Cox 1979 ; Kindle and Thompson 1989 ; McCreary et al. 1993 ; Wirth et al. 2002 ; Jochum and Murtugudde 2005 ). The Great Whirl (GW), a large (a diameter of ~300 km), semipermanent anticyclonic eddy, is the most striking mesoscale circulation

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Ryusuke Masunaga, Hisashi Nakamura, Takafumi Miyasaka, Kazuaki Nishii, and Bo Qiu

LHF at the ocean surface as outputs from the forecasting system. As documented by Masunaga et al. (2015) in detail, the resolution of prescribed SST for the ERA-Interim has been improved since January 2002. The KE and Oyashio fronts and associated mesoscale atmospheric distributions are properly represented in the wintertime climatologies constructed for the period from 2002 to 2012, while they are missing in the earlier period for which the resolution of the SST data is substantially lower. In

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Ryusuke Masunaga, Hisashi Nakamura, Takafumi Miyasaka, Kazuaki Nishii, and Youichi Tanimoto

mesoscale structures in marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) that cannot form only through atmospheric processes (e.g., Small et al. 2008 ; Kelly et al. 2010 ). Investigating long-term ship-measured climatology, Tanimoto et al. (2011) found that enhanced SHF and LHF along the KE warm the overlying MABL locally, forming a trough of sea level pressure (SLP) in winter and thereby influencing the distribution of surface geostrophic wind through the “hydrostatic effect” ( Lindzen and Nigam 1987

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Yi-Hui Wang and W. Timothy Liu

AIRS data from the winter months between December 2003 and February 2013 are analyzed. Both the TRMM and AIRS data are provided by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center. To assess the satellite-derived results, we used reanalysis data from the ERA-Interim (e.g., Dee et al. 2011 ), which are produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and are available since 1979 onward at a 0.75° resolution. The atmospheric variables of the ERA-Interim data

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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

mesoscale structures around the cyclone’s center. Section 4 examines the significant roles of the sensible heat supply from these currents in the CCB–LH feedback process. A discussion and a summary are provided in sections 5 and 6 , respectively. 2. Experimental design and validation of the control experiment a. Design of the Cloud Resolving Storm Simulator To conduct numerical experiments of the explosive cyclone, the Cloud Resolving Storm Simulator (CReSS) was used ( Tsuboki and Sakakibara 2007

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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

that the cyclone type that appeared and rapidly developed over the northwestern Pacific Ocean, the so-called Pacific Ocean–ocean (PO–O) cyclones, was more reinforced by the effect of latent heating than were other types. This may be because the PO–O cyclones occur under moister environments. From the viewpoint of forecasting explosive cyclone development, Kuwano-Yoshida and Enomoto (2013) demonstrated that the underestimation of latent heat release in a numerical model is a primary factor in PO

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Hyodae Seo, Arthur J. Miller, and Joel R. Norris

1. Introduction Oceanic mesoscale eddies, with a typical length scale of 10–100 km in the midlatitudes and 1000 km in the tropics, have signatures both in sea surface temperature (SST) and surface currents. The eddies interact with the atmosphere through the SST and surface current influencing wind stress, the process referred to in the literature as eddy–wind interaction or mesoscale air–sea interaction. This is conveniently represented in the form of bulk parameterization of the wind stress

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