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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Aaron Kennedy, and Sujay V. Kumar

Forecasting Model (ARW-WRF; Michalakes et al. 2001 ) is a state-of-the-art mesoscale numerical weather prediction system. Derived from the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5; Anthes and Warner 1978 ), ARW-WRF has been designated as the community model for atmospheric research and operational prediction and is ideal for high-resolution (e.g., 1 km) regional simulations on the order of 1–10 days. ARW-WRF has an Eulerian mass

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Craig R. Ferguson, Eric F. Wood, and Raghuveer K. Vinukollu

P. , 2007 : Assimilation of screen-level variables in ECMWF’s Integrated Forecast System: A study on the impact on the forecast quality and analyzed soil moisture . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 135 , 300 – 314 . Ek, M. B. , Mitchell K. E. , Lin Y. , Rogers E. , Grunmann P. , Koren V. , Gayno G. , and Tarpley J. D. , 2003 : Implementation of Noah land surface model advances in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction operational mesoscale Eta model . J. Geophys. Res. , 108

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

irrigation. WRF is a mesoscale and nonhydrostatic atmospheric model that can be used both for research and operational forecasting. The model uses a terrain-following vertical coordinate system that extends from the surface to 50 hPa. The Noah LSM, which has been coupled to WRF, was used to provide surface fluxes of energy, momentum, and mass to WRF. The Noah LSM includes a static vegetation component with four soil layers and one canopy layer. The LSMs currently coupled to WRF do not include dynamic

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Xubin Zeng, Zhuo Wang, and Aihui Wang

temperature diurnal cycle over arid regions by addressing these three questions. Two community land models will be used: the Noah land model ( Ek et al. 2003 ; Chen and Dudhia 2001 ) as used in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) regional and global weather forecasting models as well as in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, and the Community Land Model (CLM3.5) ( Oleson et al. 2008 ) as used in the NCAR Earth System Model

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

using a mesoscale atmospheric model, with up to 20% increases over individual locations. While irrigation has been shown to influence the spatial distribution of precipitation over the Great Plains and upper Midwest, identification of the relative quantity of irrigated water that falls as precipitation within the region allows for a better understanding of how irrigation affects the regional water budget. DeAngelis et al. (2010) employed a backward trajectory technique based on Dominguez et al

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