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C. Hogrefe, W. Hao, K. Civerolo, J.-Y. Ku, G. Sistla, R. S. Gaza, L. Sedefian, K. Schere, A. Gilliland, and R. Mathur

. J. Geophys. Res. , 108 . 4183, doi:10.1029/2001JD001409 . Black , T. , 1994 : The new NMC mesoscale Eta Model: Description and forecast examples. Wea. Forecasting , 9 , 265 – 278 . Byun , D. W. , and K. L. Schere , 2006 : Review of the governing equations, computational algorithms, and other components of the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Appl. Mech. Rev. , 59 , 51 – 77 . Cai , C. , 2006 : Implementation and performance evaluation of an

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John S. Irwin, William B. Petersen, and Steven C. Howard

or puff width. So, for emergency response planning, what is needed is a forecast of the trajectory variability plus an estimate of the probability distribution of the centerline concentration values as a function of transport downwind distance ( Dabberdt and Miller 2000 ). For now, since ensemble mesoscale meteorological forecasts are not routinely available, the trajectory variability could be characterized using the technique we applied to generate nine trajectories, and collocating the results

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Armin Aulinger, Volker Matthias, and Markus Quante

, J. , and T. F. Bidleman , 1992 : Interdependence of the slopes and intercepts from the log–log correlations of measured gas-particle partitioning and vapour pressure—I. Theory and analysis of available data. Atmos. Environ. , 26A , 1071 – 1080 . Reisner , J. , R. J. Rasmussen , and R. T. Bruintjes , 1998 : Explicit forecasting of supercooled liquid water in winter storms using the MM5 mesoscale model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 124 , 1071 – 1107 . Shatalov , V. , A

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George Kallos, Marina Astitha, Petros Katsafados, and Chris Spyrou

activity over the Indian Ocean are evident. The resulting pressure gradient over the GMR is relatively strong (10–20 hPa from the western to eastern Mediterranean or even greater), and its variability defines the onset of trade wind systems like the etesians over the Aegean Sea. Figure 1 is produced with the use of mean monthly sea level pressure fields for August of 2001 from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis fields. The general pattern of the flow over the GMR

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M. Talat Odman, Yongtao Hu, Alper Unal, Armistead G. Russell, and James W. Boylan

Research Mesoscale Model for meteorology ( Grell et al. 1994 ) and the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions model for emissions ( Center for Environmental Modeling for Policy Development 2004 ). Details of the meteorological and emissions modeling can be found elsewhere ( Olerud and Sims 2003 ; Morris et al. 2004 ). The horizontal resolution of the CMAQ grid was 12 km over the domain shown in Fig. 1 . Nineteen unequally spaced vertical layers with finer resolution near the surface extended to a

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