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Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, and Marion Maturilli

reactions ( Teitelbaum and Sadourny 1998 ; Carslaw et al. 1998 ). Simulation of mesoscale mountain waves especially posed a challenge, and special methods such as linear wave prediction models and mesoscale forecast models were used in the past to predict their local formation (e.g., Dörnbrack et al. 1998 ; Eckermann et al. 2006 ). In this day and age, global operational NWP models use spatial resolutions, which hardly could be attained by limited-area models several years ago. For example, the

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Ernani de Lima Nascimento, Gerhard Held, and Ana Maria Gomes

: 10.1175/1520-0434(2003)018<1262:COVWPN>2.0.CO;2 . Moller , A. R. , 2001 : Severe local storms forecasting. Severe Convective Storms, C. A. Doswell III, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 433–480 . Nascimento , E. L. , 2005 : Severe storms forecasting utilizing convective parameters and mesoscale models: An operational strategy adoptable in Brazil (in Portuguese)? Braz. Meteor. Mag., 20, 121–140. [Available online at http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbmet/v25n4/09.pdf .] Nascimento , E. L. , and C. A

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FRANCES C. PARMENTER

-cessive satellite photographs, is shown in figure 2. Figure1 depicting the arched squall line thus provides a graphictool for forecasting this mesoscale phenomena. REFERENCEHurd, Willis E., "Northers of the Gulf of Tehuantepec," MonthlyWeather Review, Vol. 57, No. 5, May 1929, pp. 192-194.iFIQURE 1.-ESSA 9 photograph on Feb. 3, 1970, at 2053 om.I 3-3-7(0m2152GMT- 3-4-70IOOOWFIQURE 2.-Position of the Gulf of Tehuantepec squall line.

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FRANCES C. PARMENTER

along the north-south Absarokaand Wind River Ranges, and farther east along the BigHorn Mountains. The wind at' the top of the 12,000- and14,000-ft. mountains, indicated by LND, is 40 kt. fromthe west.Another area of wave clouds (S) can be seen along theeastern edge of the frontal cloudiness approaching Wash-ington and Oregon, in the vicinity of Mt. Adams andMt. Hood.The presence of wave clouds in satellite photographsprovides the aviation forecaster with visual informationabout the mesoscale wind

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JOSEPH A. MILLER

forecaster by identifying the dry airintrusion and determining it,s motion. No deaths werereported in the area struck by tornadoes. This, no doubt,was due in part to the timeliness of the watches issued bythe NSSFC. Colocation of the SFSS and the NSSFCpresents a unique opportunity to correlate satelliteimagery and conventional meteorological data. Rela-tionships pertinent to mesoscale features and satelliteimagery can be evaluated in real time. With the launchof the Geostationary Operational

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Bryce J. Weinand

1. Introduction Between 1200 and 1500 UTC on 17 April 1999, a series of mesoscale eddies formed east of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and Nebraska. Although generally clear skies prevailed, the eddies were strikingly apparent in the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-8 ( GOES-8 ) water vapor imagery ( Figs. 1–3 ). This case is unusual in that multiple eddies formed in a linear fashion and were well structured for a long temporal period. Initially there was a total of four

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David M. Schultz, Derek S. Arndt, David J. Stensrud, and Jay W. Hanna

]. Although a coastal low was dumping up to a foot (30 cm) of snow in North Carolina ( Fig. 1 ), skies were generally clear farther west, except for a few light snow flurries. Despite accumulations from these snow flurries ranging from a dusting to less than an inch (2.5 cm), at least three National Weather Service (NWS) forecast offices (Springfield, Missouri; Norman, Oklahoma; and Huntsville) mentioned the snow in their Area Forecast Discussion products after it had already begun falling. Specifically

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Werner Alpers, Andrei Yu. Ivanov, and Knut-Frode Dagestad

images, which are a useful resource for validating high-resolution mesoscale atmospheric models over the ocean. The SAR image presented in this paper shows the encounter of two local wind fields: a mesoscale atmospheric eddy and a foehn wind over the Black Sea. Furthermore, it shows the deflection of the foehn wind by the eddy. The paper is organized as follows: In section 2 we present the SAR image and the SAR-derived wind field and in section 3 we present a quasi-simultaneously acquired cloud

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John P. Monteverdi, Roger Edwards, and Gregory J. Stumpf

NMC mesoscale eta model: Description and forecast examples . Wea. Forecasting , 9 , 265 – 278 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0434(1994)009<0265:TNNMEM>2.0.CO;2 . Bluestein , H. B. , 1979 : A mini-tornado in California . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 107 , 1227 – 1229 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(1979)107<1227:AMTIC>2.0.CO;2 . Bluestein , H. B. , 2000 : A tornadic supercell over elevated, complex terrain: The Divide, Colorado, storm of 12 July 1996 . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 128 , 795 – 809 , doi: 10

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