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F. M. Ralph, T. Coleman, P. J. Neiman, R. J. Zamora, and M. D. Dettinger

forecasts and development of regional extreme event thresholds using data from HMT-2006 and COOP observers . J. Hydrometeor. , 11 , 1288 – 1306 . Ralph, F. M. , Neiman P. J. , Kiladis G. N. , Weickman K. , and Reynolds D. W. , 2011 : A multi-scale observational case study of a Pacific atmospheric river exhibiting tropical–extratropical connections and a mesoscale frontal wave . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 139 , 1169 – 1189 . Smith, B. L. , Yuter S. E. , Neiman P. J. , and Kingsmill D. E

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Dusanka Zupanski, Sara Q. Zhang, Milija Zupanski, Arthur Y. Hou, and Samson H. Cheung

circulation model ( Zhang et al. 2008 ). At mesoscales, a recent study by Zupanski et al. (2010) applied an ensemble filter to assimilate synthetic cloudy IR radiances from the next-generation series of GOES-R Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) instruments. The study also demonstrated that the forecast error covariance, updated by ensemble forecasts, is reflecting the occurring storm environment, which allows for maximizing information extracted from observations in the storm areas. The potential of these

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F. M. Ralph, E. Sukovich, D. Reynolds, M. Dettinger, S. Weagle, W. Clark, and P. J. Neiman

Forecast System (GFS), North American Mesoscale model (NAM), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), Met Office (UKMO), and the Meteorological Service of Canada. The HPC gridded-point QPF values are forwarded to the NWS RFCs, where the Hydrometeorological Analysis and Support (HAS) meteorologist reviews the RFC regional gridded-point values for a specified number of sites throughout the RFC region and modifies these points when appropriate to the local terrain, regional climate, and

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Sandra E. Yuter, David A. Stark, Justin A. Crouch, M. Jordan Payne, and Brian A. Colle

1. Introduction Much progress has been made in the last decade in the study of orographic precipitation using high-resolution idealized and forecast models, case studies from field projects, and the analysis of radar and precipitation-gauge characteristics from multiseason datasets. Mountains more commonly modify and amplify precipitation associated with preexisting weather disturbances rather than solely initiating all the precipitation ( Smith 2006 ). For unblocked flow, the strength and

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Jonathan J. Gourley, Scott E. Giangrande, Yang Hong, Zachary L. Flamig, Terry Schuur, and Jasper A. Vrugt

. S. , and Kim K-E. , 2009 : The hydrometeor classification algorithm for the polarimetric WSR-88D: Description and application to an MCS. Wea. Forecasting , 24 , 730 – 748 . 10.1175/2008WAF2222205.1 Petersen, W. A. , and Coauthors , 1999 : Mesoscale and radar observations of the Fort Collins flash flood of 28 July 1997. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 80 , 191 – 216 . 10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<0191:MAROOT>2.0.CO;2 Ryzhkov, A. V. , and Zrnić D. S. , 1995 : Precipitation and

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Youcun Qi, Jian Zhang, Brian Kaney, Carrie Langston, and Kenneth Howard

Alpert, P. , 1986 : Mesoscale indexing of the distribution of orographic precipitation over high mountains . J. Climate Appl. Meteor. , 25 , 532 – 545 , doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1986)025<0532:MIOTDO>2.0.CO;2 . Andrieu, H. , and Creutin J. D. , 1995 : Identification of vertical profiles of radar reflectivity for hydrological applications using an inverse method. Part I: Formulation . J. Appl. Meteor. , 34 , 225 – 239 , doi:10.1175/1520-0450(1995)034<0225:IOVPOR>2.0.CO;2 . Bellon, A

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