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John M. Peters, Christopher J. Nowotarski, and Gretchen L. Mullendore

; Hernandez-Deckers and Sherwood 2016 ). Though some nonsupercellular modes of deep convection (such as mesoscale convective systems) may last for more than an hour, the lifetimes of the individual thermals is often less than 15 min (e.g., Hernandez-Deckers and Sherwood 2016 ). Supercell updrafts tend to be relatively wide, sometimes exceeding 10 km in diameter (e.g., Peters et al. 2019b , hereafter P19 ). The diameter of thermals in ordinary convection, on the other hand, is often closer to 1 km or

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Bart Nijssen, Shraddhanand Shukla, Chiyu Lin, Huilin Gao, Tian Zhou, Ishottama, Justin Sheffield, Eric F. Wood, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

. From 2007 to 2013, Lloyd-Hughes and Saunders (2007) operated a global drought monitor, which was updated on a monthly basis and used station-based precipitation from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC; Schneider et al. 2014 ) and air temperature from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Their system used the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI). Princeton University operates an African drought monitor

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Sujay V. Kumar, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, David Mocko, Rolf Reichle, Yuqiong Liu, Kristi R. Arsenault, Youlong Xia, Michael Ek, George Riggs, Ben Livneh, and Michael Cosh

is spun up by running from 1979 to 2012 twice and then reinitializing the model in 1979. Noah LSM is used operationally at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) as the land component of regional and global weather forecasting models and at the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) in the offline land analysis system. More recent upgrades to the model have focused on improving the snow physics within Noah ( Barlage et al. 2010 ; Livneh et al. 2010 ; Wang et al. 2010 ) by providing

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Kingtse C. Mo and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

mean index over the western region, except the PNW ( Fig. 12b ). The difference is about 5%–10%, which is large enough to put drought in different categories. Therefore, SPI6 may not be a good index to monitor drought over the western interior region. We emphasize that the purpose of this paper is not to develop drought prediction methods; our results are for nowcasts with no forecast element. However, we did evaluate the likelihood that droughts, identified based on the grand mean index, will

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Martha C. Anderson, Christopher Hain, Jason Otkin, Xiwu Zhan, Kingtse Mo, Mark Svoboda, Brian Wardlow, and Agustin Pimstein

. , Wardlow B. D. , Tadesse T. , Hayes M. J. , and Reed B. C. , 2008 : The Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI): A new integrated approach for monitoring drought stress in vegetation . GISci. Remote Sens. , 45 , 16 – 46 . Burnash, R. J. C. , 1995 : The NWS river forecast system—Catchment modeling. Computer Models of Watershed Hydrology, V. P. Singh, Ed., Water Resources Publications, 311–366. Daly, C. , Neilson R. P. , and Phillips D. L. , 1994 : A statistical

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