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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

properties follow Held et al. (1993) and depend on water path but not particle size. AM3 does not treat ice nucleation or link ice nucleation to crystal sizes. In shallow cumulus and stratiform ice clouds, ice particle sizes are diagnosed as a function of temperature, based on aircraft observations ( Donner et al. 1997 ) with radiative properties following Fu and Liou (1993) . In mesoscale updrafts associated with deep convection, ice crystals increase in size with distance from the top of the updraft

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Jean-Christophe Golaz, Marc Salzmann, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, and Ming Zhao

the range of 4.5–7.5 μ m are common, even though they are unrealistically small. The threshold radius of 10.6 μ m in AM2 is comparable to values in cloud and mesoscale models. This value was reduced to 8 μ m in the atmospheric component AM2.1 of the coupled model CM2.1 ( Delworth et al. 2006 ). The value of the threshold radius in large-scale models, such as GCMs, is often reduced compared to finer-scale models to compensate for the neglect of in-cloud subgrid-scale variability ( Pincus and

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Stephen M. Griffies, Michael Winton, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Stephanie M. Downes, Riccardo Farneti, Anand Gnanadesikan, William J. Hurlin, Hyun-Chul Lee, Zhi Liang, Jaime B. Palter, Bonita L. Samuels, Andrew T. Wittenberg, Bruce L. Wyman, Jianjun Yin, and Niki Zadeh

NMC mesoscale eta model: Description and forecast examples . Wea. Forecasting , 9 , 265 – 278 . Böning , C. W. , A. Dispert , M. Visbeck , S. Rintoul , and F. Schwarzkopf , 2008 : The response of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to recent climate change . Nat. Geosci. , 1 , 864 – 869 . Bourke , R. H. , and R. P. Garrett , 1987 : Sea ice thickness distribution in the Arctic Ocean . Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. , 13 , 259 – 280 . Cavalieri , D. , C. Parkinson , and K

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