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Yiwen Mei, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, and Marco Borga

ranging from 200 to approximately 3900 m MSL, with mean elevation at about 1800 m MSL. There are 16 cascade basins involved in our study with areas ranging from 255 to 6967 km 2 and mean elevation above almost 1700 m MSL (see Table 2 for a summary). Precipitation in the region is primarily attributed to mesoscale convective systems during summer to early fall and frontal or organized convective systems during fall and early winter ( Frei and Schär 1998 ; Norbiato et al. 2009b ). The mean annual

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Clément Guilloteau, Rémy Roca, and Marielle Gosset

the mean rain intensity. The relative importance of each term in explaining rainfall variability depends on the considered resolution and the type of rainfall regime. Over the tropical continents, where a few hours of rain per year can produce most of the annual rain depth, the variability of the precipitation fraction is a key determinant ( Morrissey et al. 1994 ; D’Amato and Lebel 1998 ; Kebe et al. 2005 ). In West Africa, most rainfall is provided by organized mesoscale convective systems

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Chris Kidd, Toshihisa Matsui, Jiundar Chern, Karen Mohr, Chris Kummerow, and Dave Randel

evolved to extract information on precipitation from the satellite observations. Although the Vis–IR observations are relatively indirect, their frequent temporal availability from GEO sensors permits the timely production of near-real-time products for applications such as flood forecasting. The more direct observations made by PM sensors have led to a range of precipitation estimates using empirical and/or physically based schemes. Empirical techniques built on basic radiometric properties of

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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

-sized flat islands surrounded by ocean. Regardless of the different sets of microphysics schemes and large-scale forcing, scattering of CRM-generated microwave brightness temperature (Tb) tends to become larger as the island size increases for different large-scale forcing and shows reasonable agreement with TRMM-observed microwave scattering ( Williams et al. 2005 ; Zipser et al. 2006 ). They concluded that the dominant mechanism for convective invigoration over islands is mesoscale dynamics (pressure

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