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Ya Yang, Xiang Li, Jing Wang, and Dongliang Yuan

eastern Pacific. The subsurface westward flow also appeared in the geostrophic currents relative to a motionless depth at 1000 m in the 137°E vertical section in Qiu and Chen (2010) and Zhai et al. (2013) . However, none of these previous studies have focused on the westward undercurrent. Nor were they able to distinguish this undercurrent from the perturbations of mesoscale eddies and others due to the poor spatial–temporal coverage of the historical data, until Yuan et al. (2014) , who were able

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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Fuqing Zhang

( Dai 2001 ; Cronin et al. 2015 ; Yamanaka et al. 2018 ). Owing to the prevailing importance of local mesoscale circulations in the MC, adequately modeling weather and climate here has been a major longstanding challenge—a challenge that links to weather prediction across a vast range of space and time scales ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ; Waliser et al. 2003 ; Dai and Trenberth 2004 ; Love et al. 2011 ). Here we seek to address this challenge by investigating diurnal convective systems in the MC

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James H. Ruppert Jr., Xingchao Chen, and Fuqing Zhang

circulations diurnally trigger deep moist convection each afternoon, which in turn grows upscale into vigorous mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) ( Houze et al. 1981 ; Johnson and Priegnitz 1981 ; Johnson 1982 ; Mapes and Houze 1993 ). These MCSs often propagate offshore overnight, enduring well into the next day ( Mori et al. 2004 ; Yamanaka et al. 2018 ). A prevalence of long-lived nocturnally offshore-propagating rainfall signatures has been noted in many regions of the world, though the root

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Ming Feng, Yongliang Duan, Susan Wijffels, Je-Yuan Hsu, Chao Li, Huiwu Wang, Yang Yang, Hong Shen, Jianjun Liu, Chunlin Ning, and Weidong Yu

-Pacific region. The MJO offers promising perspectives to forecast tropical rainfall with a lead time of a couple of weeks; however, current state-of-art weather forecasting models have systematic biases and cannot reproduce the MJO well (e.g., Kim et al. 2014 ), possibly because they do not represent air–sea interaction processes associated with the MJO ( DeMott et al. 2015 ). During boreal summer, intraseasonal oscillations display prominent northward–northeastward propagation and variability, extending

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

.1175/1525-7541(2004)005<0487:CAMTPG>2.0.CO;2 Kain , J. S. , and J. M. Fritsch , 1992 : The role of the convective “trigger function” in numerical forecasts of mesoscale convective systems . Meteor. Atmos. Phys. , 49 , 93 – 106 , doi: 10.1007/BF01025402 . 10.1007/BF01025402 Kikuchi , K. , and B. Wang , 2008 : Diurnal precipitation regimes in the global tropics . J. Climate , 21 , 2680 – 2696 , doi: 10.1175/2007JCLI2051.1 . 10.1175/2007JCLI2051.1 Kim , D. , M. I. Lee , D. Kim , S. D. Schubert , D. E

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Chu-Chun Chen, Min-Hui Lo, Eun-Soon Im, Jin-Yi Yu, Yu-Chiao Liang, Wei-Ting Chen, Iping Tang, Chia-Wei Lan, Ren-Jie Wu, and Rong-You Chien

, or bare ground) or broader deforestation regions (not confined to the tropics). Besides impacting local and regional climate, large-scale deforestations can also induce remote climate impacts through changes in the large-scale circulation (e.g., Hadley circulation or Walker circulation) and Rossby wave propagation in the atmosphere (e.g., Henderson-Sellers et al. 1993 ; Sud et al. 1996 ; Zhang et al. 1996b ; Snyder 2010 ; Lawrence and Vandecar 2015 ). Mesoscale deforestation (on scales of

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Anurag Dipankar, Stuart Webster, Xiang-Yu Huang, and Van Quang Doan

region running regional models for weather prediction using input conditions from the big centers like the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF,) the Met Office (United Kingdom), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (United States). A novelty of the current study is that it utilizes results from a convection-permitting state-of-the-art NWP model to highlight the biases in the input conditions from the high-resolution (9 km) deterministic forecast from ECMWF

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D. Argüeso, R. Romero, and V. Homar

modeling perspective, a better understanding of the mechanisms driving convection in the MC and improved realism of simulated rainfall in the region is a crucial step toward the overarching goal of the YMC, which will ultimately benefit mesoscale and global climate models alike. Fig . 1. The Maritime Continent. Labels indicate names of major islands. The region shown corresponds exactly to the model domain. Global climate models typically have spatial resolutions that are unable to represent the

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Claire L. Vincent and Todd P. Lane

1. Introduction The weather and climate of the Maritime Continent is dominated by both intraseasonal-scale and mesoscale variability. Numerous studies have found evidence to support the modulation of the diurnal precipitation cycle by intraseasonal-scale variability, including Houze et al. (1981) , Rauniyar and Walsh (2013) , Fujita et al. (2011) , Peatman et al. (2014) , Birch et al. (2016) , Vincent and Lane (2016a) , and Vincent and Lane (2017) . A recurring finding in these studies

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Wan-Ling Tseng, Huang-Hsiung Hsu, Noel Keenlyside, Chiung-Wen June Chang, Ben-Jei Tsuang, Chia-Ying Tu, and Li-Chiang Jiang

Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) 6-hourly products ( Saha 2011 ). The CLIVAR MJO Working Group diagnostics package ( Waliser et al. 2009 ) is used to isolate and analyze the intraseasonal (20–100 day) variability. MJO phase composites are computed based on the Real-Time Multivariate MJO index ( Wheeler and Hendon 2004 ). We use the ECHAM5.4 ( Roeckner 2003 ) AGCM coupled with the Snow-Ice-Thermocline (SIT) one-column ocean model ( Tu and Tsuang 2005 ; Tsuang et al. 2009 ) to simulate the

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