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Kyle Chudler, Weixin Xu, and Steven A. Rutledge

-0468.1 Yokoi , S. , S. Mori , F. Syamsudin , U. Haryoko , and B. Geng , 2019 : Environmental conditions for nighttime offshore migration of precipitation area as revealed by in situ observation off Sumatra Island . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 147 , 3391 – 3407 , . 10.1175/MWR-D-18-0412.1 Zheng , L. , J. Sun , X. Zhang , and C. Liu , 2013 : Organizational modes of mesoscale convective systems over central East China . Wea. Forecasting , 28

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Corinne B. Trott, Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Heather L. Roman-Stork, V. S. N. Murty, and C. Gnanaseelan

et al. 2017 ; Seelanki et al. 2018 ). Rainfall events directly freshen the surface layer of the BoB and indirectly contribute to the outflow from several major river systems that discharge into the BoB, thus favoring differential oceanic responses to ISOs in the northern, central, and southern BoB ( Schott et al. 2009 ). Salinity is further modulated by the southwest monsoon current advecting high salinity waters from the Arabian Sea into the BoB on intraseasonal time scales and by mesoscale

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D. A. Cherian, E. L. Shroyer, H. W. Wijesekera, and J. N. Moum

presence of recirculations ( Wijesekera et al. 2016 ; Vinayachandran et al. 1999 ; Webber et al. 2018 ). The southwestern and south-central Bay is a site of energetic mesoscale variability during the SW monsoon (our Fig. 2d ; Chen et al. 2018 ). The elevated EKE reflects at least three mesoscale features: a westward propagating anticyclone ( Wijesekera et al. 2016 ), a large cyclonic eddy that spins up annually off the coast of Sri Lanka (the Sri Lanka Dome; Vinayachandran and Yamagata 1998 ) and

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Sebastian Essink, Verena Hormann, Luca R. Centurioni, and Amala Mahadevan

grow ( LaCasce 2008 ). As an illustration, consider a two-dimensional, quasigeostrophic model often used to represent mesoscale dynamics in the ocean. At small separations, initially, in the enstrophy-cascading range, drifters disperse nonlocally until they reach the scale at which energy is injected (often through baroclinic instability at the first baroclinic deformation radius L D , which we estimate as 60 km for our observations; Chelton et al. 1998 ). Subsequently, in the energy

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

. Grodsky et al. (2012) report a rise of SSS by 1–2 psu in the Amazon/Orinoco plume due to the passage of Hurricane Katia in August–September 2011. The Aquarius data record SSS changes due to storm-induced mixing as well as advection by surface currents associated with mesoscale eddies and basin-scale circulation ( Sengupta et al. 2016 ). The East India Coastal Current (EICC) is usually set up in late October or November each year ( Shankar et al. 1996 ). This is a time of rapid change in the basin

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Wei-Ting Chen, Chien-Ming Wu, and Hsi-Yen Ma

every day for the years 1998–2012, with prescribed NOAA Optimum Interpolation (OI) weekly SSTs and sea ice ( Reynolds et al. 2002 ). Initial atmospheric state variables (horizontal velocities, temperature, specific humidity, and surface pressure) are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim, hereinafter ERA-Int; Dee et al. 2011 ). The initialization procedure is described in Ma et al. (2015) . Based on the results in Ma et al. (2013

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

and December 2013 was chosen to compute OLR climatology. The OLR for December 2016 is obtained from NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of OLR version 1.2 ( Lee and NOAA CDR Program 2011 ), which is estimated from High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) radiance observations with a 2-day lag. It is given daily with 1° × 1° horizontal resolution. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim, hereinafter ERA-Int; Dee et al. 2011 ) is utilized for zonal

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Michael B. Natoli and Eric D. Maloney

cycle and its variability is required in order to benefit forecast skill locally and convective parameterizations. This paper aims to add to the body of work on the variability of the diurnal cycle on intraseasonal time scales. Here, the focus is on the overlooked boreal summer season with a focus on the Philippines and South China Sea. The mean state of the MC diurnal cycle has been studied extensively, primarily focusing on the islands of Sumatra, Borneo, and New Guinea. Houze et al. (1981

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

) derived a mean viscosity that was significantly different from the mean of the time-varying values. Horizontal differences in forcing, wind in particular, will lead to horizontal gradients in DWL properties and consequently horizontal gradients in upper ocean current structure. DWLs can therefore provide a mechanism for submesoscale and mesoscale horizontal mixing of surface waters by creating regions of convergence and divergence (see Bogdanoff 2017 , chapter 4). Indeed, DWLs have a range of scales

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA5; Copernicus Climate Change Service 2017 ). ERA5 has 31-km horizontal resolution at a 1-hourly time scale. RAMS interpolates ERA5 to the simulation horizontal and vertical grid spacing. Lateral and top boundary nudging of the variables listed above, except for soil moisture and temperature, is applied using ERA5 with a 15-min time scale for the outermost 50 grid points for the lateral boundary nudging and the top 5 km of the model for the top boundary nudging

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