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U. C. Mohanty, Krishna K. Osuri, Vijay Tallapragada, Frank D. Marks, Sujata Pattanayak, M. Mohapatra, L. S. Rathore, S. G. Gopalakrishnan, and Dev Niyogi

global and high-resolution mesoscale models was verified against the IMD observed track and showed in Figure 2a . IMD GFS, JMA, and IMD–HWRF had relatively large errors (km) as compared to other models. The track prediction from NCEP–GFS and HWRF, IMD–MME, and the ARW Model run at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Bhubaneswar (IITBBS), had smaller errors when compared with other models up to the 96-h forecast. The deterministic track forecast from ECMWF VarEPS indicated that the landfall

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Mark R. Jury and Sen Chiao

thermodynamically unstable. These islands are endowed with water resources to support a dense population (3 million in Jamaica and 18 million in Hispaniola, according to 2005 census) because of passing storms and local circulations. Convective clouds tend to form over the highest peaks and drift westward following midday heating, but little is known about the mesoscale processes that organize their development. Our study is motivated by an increasing demand for finescale, accurate short-range (~6 h) forecasts

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Gian Villamil-Otero, Ryan Meiszberg, Jennifer S. Haase, Ki-Hong Min, Mark R. Jury, and John J. Braun

twin gyres derived from trade winds wrapping around the island. Understanding convergence in the island wake is critical for rain forecasts. Our field work investigated conditions in the spring transition season, with little precipitation. This allowed investigation of moisture variability without complications of model cloud physics. High-temporal-resolution GPS PW measurements were useful in describing the diurnally changing mesoscale conditions found in western Puerto Rico. While a few

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Sheldon Drobot, James Maslanik, Ute Christina Herzfeld, Charles Fowler, and Wanli Wu

. 1996 ), 15-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analyses (ERA-15; Gibson et al. 1997 ), and the Climatic Research Unit/University of East Anglia CRUTEM2v (CRU; Jones et al. 2001 ) datasets were analyzed. The results indicated that temperature differences between the NCEP1 and CRU datasets were largest in winter and smallest in summer, with NCEP1 being warmer over North America; comparisons for NCEP1 and ERA-15 were similar, whereas ERA-15 was noticeably warmer than CRU

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J. Marshall Shepherd

heat for thermally forced systems, which results in horizontal temperature gradients required to drive a mesoscale circulation. In the case of the UHI, the difference in surface properties of urban and rural areas leads to the differences in the thermal fluxes in (1) . Figure 2 is a qualitative description of the surface energy balance processes. Rural and urban systems obtain energy from radiative processes in which energy is gained from the sun and lost to the upper atmosphere and space

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J. Marshall Shepherd and Steven J. Burian

for thunderstorm forecasting. Weather Forecasting 6 : 254 – 270 . Hjemfelt , M. R. 1982 . Numerical simulation of the effects of St. Louis on mesoscale boundary-layer airflow and vertical motion: Simulations of urban vs. non-urban effects. J. Appl. Meteorol 21 : 1239 – 1257 . Howard , L. 1833 . Climate of London Deduced from Meteorological Observations . 3d ed., Vol. 1, Harvey and Darton, London, 348 pp . Huff , F. A. 1986 . Urban hydrological review. Bull. Am. Meteorol

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Steven T. Fiorino and James Correia Jr

showed that mesoscale gravity wave signals could possibly be identified and tracked in near–real time using routinely disseminated 20-min interval observation data and existing automated surface observing site (ASOS) density. Such availability of data could allow severe weather forecasters to use either EOF filtering or bandpass filtering to monitor convection-induced or possibly convection-triggering gravity waves. The EOF filtering technique clearly has potential uses in other areas of mesoscale

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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

. Gibson . 2000 . The ERA-40 project plan. ERA-40 Project Report Series 1, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, United Kingdom, 63 pp . Susskind , J. , P. Piraino , L. Rokke , L. Iredell , and A. Mehta . 1997 . Characteristics of the TOVS Pathfinder Path A dataset. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 78 : 1449 – 1472 . Yap , K-S. 1995 . Impact of Newtonian assimilation and physical initialization on the initialization and prediction by a tropical mesoscale model

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Thomas F. Lee, Francis J. Turk, Jeffrey Hawkins, and Kim Richardson

forecasters, since out of the four frequencies imaged, it alone had sufficient resolution to support high quality images. In particular, these images allow forecasters to locate the cloud-covered eyes or centers of low-level circulations that cannot be detected otherwise. In 85-GHz images the primary signature is the depression of brightness temperature (Tb) caused by ice scattering within deep convection and precipitating anvil clouds ( Spencer et al., 1989 ). Images of lower frequencies are dominated by

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Mark R. Jury

Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) Climate Library website: ]; Weather Research and Forecasting Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (WRF-NMM) weather model–analyzed boundary layer height and winds [ Janjić 2003 ; National Operational Model Archive and Distribution System (NOMADS) National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) website: ]; Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) infrared cloud temperatures from NASA [Goddard

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