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Howard B. Bluestein

North American Mesoscale (NAM) model valid at 0000 UTC on 5 May ( Fig. 15 ) that an intense trough at 500 hPa was forecasted to be far upstream from southwest Kansas. The model forecasted an area of small amounts of precipitation in far northwestern Oklahoma, as was observed. However, it also forecasted a broad region of light precipitation for west-central and northwest Kansas, which did not occur. The region where cell N formed was approximately northeast of a dry bulge in the 850–500-hPa layer

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Jianhua Sun and Sixiong Zhao

. , 114 , 452 – 499 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1986)114<0452:AROTSA>2.0.CO;2 Lv, S. H. , Wang J. G. , and Qiu J. , 2004 : Analysis of freezing rains at Tianjin airport (in Chinese). Meteor. Sci. Tech. , 32 , 456 – 460 . Rauber, R. M. , Ramamurthy M. K. , and Tokay A. , 1994 : Synoptic and mesoscale structure of a severe freezing rain event: The St. Valentine’s Day ice storm. Wea. Forecasting , 9 , 183 – 208 . 10.1175/1520-0434(1994)009<0183:SAMSOA>2.0.CO;2 Rauber, R. M. , Olthoff L

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Rong-Hua Zhang and Antonio J. Busalacchi

1. Introduction Recently, there has been an increased interest in tropical instability waves (TIWs) in the tropical oceans, since they were first detected from satellite SST observations about three decades ago ( Legeckis 1977 ). In the tropical Pacific Ocean, for example, TIWs arise in the far eastern basin and then propagate westward as prominent mesoscale signals. Associated with these, SST fields show cusplike waves in the eastern equatorial Pacific, propagating westward along both the

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Hamish A. Ramsay, Lance M. Leslie, and Jeffrey D. Kepert

tropical cyclones in vertical shear flow: Vortex resiliency. J. Atmos. Sci. , 61 , 3 – 22 . Reisner , J. , R. M. Rasmussen , and R. T. Bruintjes , 1998 : Explicit forecasting of supercooled liquid water in winter storms using the MM5 mesoscale model. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 124 , 1071 – 1107 . Rogers , R. , S. Chen , J. Tenerelli , and H. Willoughby , 2003 : A numerical study of the impact of vertical shear on the distribution of rainfall in Hurricane Bonnie (1998

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M. Issa Lélé and Peter J. Lamb

variation of these associations during 1974–2003. This paper complements Bell and Lamb (2006) , which used daily rain gauge data for 1950–98 to document the variability of West African Soudano–Sahel mesoscale convective weather systems (MCWSs) during that period. Here, we add a key aspect of the regional circulation context to the understanding of that MCWS variability. The regional climate motivation for this investigation was substantial. In particular, over the 30 yr since the Sahel drought began to

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