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Don Cline, Simon Yueh, Bruce Chapman, Boba Stankov, Al Gasiewski, Dallas Masters, Kelly Elder, Richard Kelly, Thomas H. Painter, Steve Miller, Steve Katzberg, and Larry Mahrt

February 2002, IOP2 from 24 to 30 March 2002, IOP3 from 17 to 25 February 2003, and IOP4 from 25 March through 1 April 2003. In this paper, we summarize the CLPX airborne remote sensing datasets from four categories that span three spectral regions: gamma radiation observations, multi- and hyperspectral optical imaging and optical altimetry, and passive and active microwave. 2. Gamma radiation snow and soil moisture surveys Natural terrestrial gamma radiation is emitted from the potassium, uranium, and

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Robert E. Davis, Thomas H. Painter, Rick Forster, Don Cline, Richard Armstrong, Terry Haran, Kyle McDonald, and Kelly Elder

snow volume ( Chang and Rango 2000 ). Passive microwave observations have demonstrated sensitivity to snow water equivalent ( Chang et al. 1987 ; Goodison 1989 ; Nagler and Rott 1992 ; Grody and Basist 1996 ; Tait 1998 ; Pulliainen and Hallikainen 2001 ). Snow cover products derived from microwave measurements have a legacy dating back 25 yr or more ( Frei and Robinson 1999 ). However, they currently have coarse spatial resolutions that limit their use in hydrologic modeling to the larger

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Janet Hardy, Robert Davis, Yeohoon Koh, Don Cline, Kelly Elder, Richard Armstrong, Hans-Peter Marshall, Thomas Painter, Gilles Castres Saint-Martin, Roger DeRoo, Kamal Sarabandi, Tobias Graf, Toshio Koike, and Kyle McDonald

the LSOS consisted of a high sampling density within relatively uniform areas of the LSOS to facilitate a comparison of microwave remote sensing data, radiative transfer models, detailed physical models of the snow and the underlying soil, and ground observations. A network of footpaths was established throughout the LSOS to prevent the disruption of the specific measurement sites. 2. Summary of collected data parameters a. Canopy characterization In the fall of 2001, Cold Regions Research and

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Rafał Wójcik, Konstantinos Andreadis, Marco Tedesco, Eric Wood, Tara Troy, and Dennis Lettenmeier

.7 and 37 GHz. In practice, though, the emissivity of snow depends not only on SWE but also on snowpack microstructure, especially grain size and temperature. These complications with SWE retrievals have motivated an alternative approach, which focuses on top of the atmosphere (TOA) emissions in the microwave frequencies and attempts to assimilate satellite radiance observations with model predictions rather than retrieving SWE. This approach is particularly relevant for applications such as the

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Glen E. Liston, Daniel L. Birkenheuer, Christopher A. Hiemstra, Donald W. Cline, and Kelly Elder

1. Introduction For many applications, earth system scientists can benefit from continuous (in space and time) representations of state variables, such as air temperature, precipitation, and snow depth. Unfortunately, most field observations are both spatially and temporally irregular. In the atmospheric sciences, a data assimilation procedure is commonly used to produce a continuous (in x , y , z , and t ) and physically consistent representation of the atmosphere from a collection of

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Glen E. Liston and Christopher A. Hiemstra

situated in small, wind-sheltered meadows. Remote sensing observations usually cover specific areas (e.g., site B and site C in Fig. 2b and flight lines in Fig. 8a ) and may coincide with numerous model grid cells, for example, the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) instrument on the NASA EOS Aqua satellite provides global passive microwave SWE measurements on 25-km Equal-Area Scalable Earth (EASE) grids ( Kelly et al. 2004 ). In addition, MODIS on NASA

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Glen E. Liston, Christopher A. Hiemstra, Kelly Elder, and Donald W. Cline

covered three 25 km × 25 km areas in north-central Colorado ( Fig. 1 ). Each MSA was chosen because it represented a distinct cold region physiographic regime, as defined by the area’s topography, forest cover, meteorology, and snow characteristics. Nested within each of these MSAs were three 1 km × 1 km intensive study areas (ISAs). Snow-related observations for the ISAs included ground-based snow depth and density measurements ( Elder et al. 2008a ). Snow observations for the MSAs included airborne

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Nick Rutter, Don Cline, and Long Li

. H. , 1996 : Utah Energy Balance Snow Accumulation and Melt Model (UEB). Utah Water Research Laboratory, Utah State University, and USDA Forest Service Intermountain Research Station, 63 pp . Watson, F. , Newman W. , Coughlan J. , and Garrott R. , 2006 : Testing a distributed snowpack simulation model against spatial observations. J. Hydrol. , 328 , 453 – 466 . 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2005.12.012 Wiesmann, A. , Fierz C. , and Matzler C. , 2000 : 2000: Simulation of microwave

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Kelly Elder, Don Cline, Glen E. Liston, and Richard Armstrong

. 1999 ; Marks et al. 2001 ). The data presented in this study represent a unique contribution in parameters, scale, and resolution and in the particular environment in which they were collected. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Cold Land Processes Experiment (CLPX) was designed to facilitate significant advances in the field of snow hydrology and the hydrology of cold regions ( Cline et al. 2003 ). The experiment was fundamentally designed to refine microwave remote sensing

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Susan Frankenstein, Anne Sawyer, and Julie Koeberle

( Frankenstein and Koenig 2004a , b ; Frankenstein 2008 ). FASST is designed to accommodate a wide range of users, from those who have intricate knowledge of their site to those who only know the site location. It allows for 22 different terrain materials, including asphalt, concrete, bedrock, permanent snow, and the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) soil types. At a minimum, the only weather data required is the air temperature, although FASST has never been used this way. 2. Field observations a

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