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Bradley W. Klotz and David S. Nolan

assimilation systems (i.e., Aksoy et al. 2012 , 2013 ) are designed to incorporate various observations from satellite-, aircraft-, ocean-, and land-based instruments, often evaluating the effects on the predicted TC track, intensity, three-dimensional structure, and surrounding environment by including or omitting certain observations ( Aberson et al. 2015 ; Christophersen et al. 2017 ). Assimilation and prediction systems rely heavily on airborne and satellite data, and sophisticated satellite

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Patrik Benáček and Máté Mile

:// . 10.1175/MWR-D-12-00112.1 Saunders , R. , M. Matricardi , and P. Brunel , 1999 : An improved fast radiative transfer model for assimilation of satellite radiance observations . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 125 , 1407 – 1425 , . 10.1002/qj.1999.49712555615 Schwartz , C. S. , Z. Liu , Y. Chen , and X.-Y. Huang , 2012 : Impact of assimilating microwave radiances with a limited-area ensemble data

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Jothiram Vivekanandan, Virendra P. Ghate, Jorgen B. Jensen, Scott M. Ellis, and M. Christian Schwartz

estimation. Section 8 presents a summary and conclusions. The appendix contains definitions of many of the acronyms and variables used in this paper. 2. Past attempts at liquid water content and droplet size retrieval Radar, solar irradiance, microwave, millimeter-wave radiometers, and lidar observations are often used for retrieving microphysics of clouds, namely, droplet diameter and liquid water content ( Meneghini et al. 1997 ; Vivekanandan et al. 1999 , 2001 ; Ellis and Vivekanandan 2011

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Bruce Albrecht, Virendra Ghate, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Christopher Bretherton, Christian Schwartz, Edwin Eloranta, Susanne Glienke, Shaunna Donaher, Mampi Sarkar, Jeremy McGibbon, Alison D. Nugent, Raymond A. Shaw, Jacob Fugal, Patrick Minnis, Robindra Paliknoda, Louis Lussier, Jorgen Jensen, J. Vivekanandan, Scott Ellis, Peisang Tsai, Robert Rilling, Julie Haggerty, Teresa Campos, Meghan Stell, Michael Reeves, Stuart Beaton, John Allison, Gregory Stossmeister, Samuel Hall, and Sebastian Schmidt

Pincus 1995 ; Bretherton et al. 1995 ). The ASTEX Lagrangian studies, however, were not made in classic trade wind flow conditions and lacked the aircraft-based lidar and radar observations needed to provide a detailed mapping of cloud and precipitation structures. Fig . 1. (top left) Photo of NSF–NCAR GV and (top right) GOES visible image with aircraft path on 27 Jul 2015 RF10 during CSET. The red points indicate where dropsonde launches were made. (bottom) Photos from this flight were taken by a

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Christopher S. Bretherton, Isabel L. McCoy, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, Virendra Ghate, Andrew Gettelman, Charles G. Bardeen, Bruce A. Albrecht, and Paquita Zuidema

1. Introduction The climatological stratocumulus to cumulus (Sc–Cu) transition over the eastern subtropical oceans has been a long-standing test of our physical understanding and modeling skill. Through a combination of field and satellite observations and detailed process modeling such as large-eddy simulation (LES), the Sc–Cu transition has been explained as due to the deepening and warming of a cloud-topped marine boundary layer under a strong inversion as it advects toward warmer sea

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Robert Wood, Kuan-Ting O, Christopher S. Bretherton, Johannes Mohrmann, Bruce. A. Albrecht, Paquita Zuidema, Virendra Ghate, Chris Schwartz, Ed Eloranta, Susanne Glienke, Raymond A. Shaw, Jacob Fugal, and Patrick Minnis

fluxes increase over warmer waters ( Bretherton and Wyant 1997 ; Wyant et al. 1997 ). As several studies have shown ( Martin et al. 1995 ; Zhou et al. 2015 ), stratocumulus cloud breakup is not an immediate response to MBL decoupling but can be delayed by as much as 1–3 days with cloud cover often remaining above 50% until 500–2000 km downstream of decoupling onset ( Zhou et al. 2015 ). Given the importance of the SCT, it is remarkable that few dedicated aircraft observations have sampled the MBL

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M. Christian Schwartz, Virendra P. Ghate, Bruce. A. Albrecht, Paquita Zuidema, Maria P. Cadeddu, Jothiram Vivekanandan, Scott M. Ellis, Pei Tsai, Edwin W. Eloranta, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, and Christopher S. Bretherton

commonly include liquid water path, which can serve as a geophysical constraint on the microphysical retrievals from active remote sensors (e.g., Frisch et al. 1995 ). The CSET campaign included an upward-looking millimeter-wave G-band microwave radiometer (GVR) for this purpose, operating at four double-sideband channels (±1, ±3, ±7, and ±14 GHz) off the center of the 183.3-GHz water vapor line ( Pazmany 2007 ). GVR data had previously been applied successfully in a stratocumulus-focused aircraft

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Johna E. Rudzin, Lynn K. Shay, and Benjamin Jaimes de la Cruz

estimations. Satellite SST is used due to the lack of in situ SST observations within the Caribbean Sea during the case studies. This specific product was chosen because it incorporates microwave sensors, which are needed to resolve SST variability in cloudy situations, and because of its high spatial resolution. In-storm SST (SSTin) and 1-day-prestorm SST (SSTpre) are used in this study. SST differences between airborne expendable bathythermographs (AXBTs) and collocated SSTin from GHRSST daily satellite

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