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Zachary S. Bruick, Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Daniel J. Cecil

Argentina. With time, this will be a promising avenue to explore hail within this region, but currently the data record is not extensive enough for a thorough analysis. Fig . 1. Southern South America with topography shaded and the study area outlined. As a result, the most comprehensive way to examine the climatology of hail in subtropical South America and compare these results to other parts of the world is to use passive microwave satellite observations of ice hydrometeors. These measurements have

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Robert J. Trapp, Karen A. Kosiba, James N. Marquis, Matthew R. Kumjian, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Joshua Wurman, Paola Salio, Maxwell A. Grover, Paul Robinson, and Deanna A. Hence

.5439/1482619 . 10.5439/1482619 Bang , S. D. , and D. J. Cecil , 2019 : Constructing a multifrequency passive microwave hail retrieval and climatology in the GPM domain . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 58 , 1889 – 1904 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-19-0042.1 . 10.1175/JAMC-D-19-0042.1 Blair , S. F. , and Coauthors , 2017 : High-resolution hail observations: Implications for NWS warning operations . Wea. Forecasting , 32 , 1101 – 1119 , https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-16-0203.1 . 10.1175/WAF-D-16

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Russ S. Schumacher, Deanna A. Hence, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, Karen A. Kosiba, Joshua Wurman, Paola Salio, Martin Rugna, Adam C. Varble, and Nathan R. Kelly

1. Introduction Subtropical South America, and in particular the La Plata basin of Argentina, has been identified as a region with some of the most intense convective storms on the planet. In particular, observations from the TRMM satellite have shown that especially deep and wide convective systems occur in this region ( Zipser et al. 2006 ; Romatschke and Houze 2010 ; Liu and Zipser 2015 ; Houze et al. 2015 ), and these storms produce a very large proportion of the annual rainfall for this

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Jeremiah O. Piersante, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Russ S. Schumacher, Angela K. Rowe, and Lynn A. McMurdie

1. Introduction Thunderstorms maximize in frequency and intensity near large mountain ranges ( Zipser et al. 2006 ); however, ground-based observations are historically sparse in some of these locations around the world. Fortunately, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) has provided a robust dataset of subtropical storm characteristics. Resulting studies using TRMM PR have shown observational evidence that convective echoes east of the Andes Mountains in

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Timothy J. Lang, Eldo E. Ávila, Richard J. Blakeslee, Jeff Burchfield, Matthew Wingo, Phillip M. Bitzer, Lawrence D. Carey, Wiebke Deierling, Steven J. Goodman, Bruno Lisboa Medina, Gregory Melo, and Rodolfo G. Pereyra

field campaigns occurred near Córdoba from late 2018 through early 2019. The Remote Sensing of Electrification, Lightning, and Mesoscale/Microscale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO) field campaign focused on high-impact convective weather, and the Clouds, Aerosols, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) field campaign focused on the representation of orographic clouds in atmospheric models ( RELAMPAGO-CACTI 2020 ). The U.S. components of these field campaigns, primarily

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Jeremiah O. Piersante, Russ. S. Schumacher, and Kristen L. Rasmussen

biases. Müller et al. (2016) analyze precipitation and surface temperature forecasts over various forecast lead times, but use the same model configuration throughout. Clearly, there has yet to be a robust model verification analysis of atmospheric conditions favorable for MCSs and extreme rainfall, such as temperature, relative humidity, and wind in South America. While surface observations are widespread and available for ensemble-based forecast verification of extreme rainfall and the associated

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Sujan Pal, Francina Dominguez, María Eugenia Dillon, Javier Alvarez, Carlos Marcelo Garcia, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and David Gochis

et al. 2018 ), affecting the Carcarañá River basin, a subbasin of the La Plata River basin. As such, the mountainous headwater region of this basin ( Fig. 1 ) is ideally suited to perform hydrometeorological studies of convection and flash flooding. To measure these intense convective storms and associated impacts, the Remote Sensing of Electrification, Lightning and Mesoscale/Microscale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO, https

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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Paola V. Salio

1. Introduction Satellite observations have revealed that some of the world’s most intense thunderstorms occur across subtropical South America and, more specifically, in northern and central Argentina (e.g., Zipser et al. 2006 ; Romatschke and Houze 2010 ; Cecil and Blankenship 2012 ; Houze et al. 2015 ). These thunderstorms typically develop near a secondary mountain range to the east of the Andes called the Sierras de Córdoba (SDC), and they have been associated with severe weather

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Matthew R. Kumjian, Rachel Gutierrez, Joshua S. Soderholm, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paula Maldonado, Lorena Medina Luna, James Marquis, Kevin A. Bowley, Milagros Alvarez Imaz, and Paola Salio

environment of the supercell that produced the Vivian, South Dakota, hailstone (which registers as the world record for maximum dimension: 20 cm or 8 in.) and analyzed some of the storm’s radar characteristics. Their evaluation of the environment indicated that it was indeed supportive of severe convective storms, but it was not obviously supportive of such large hail as was observed. Other studies focused on radar observations of storms producing giant or gargantuan hail. Blair et al. (2011) compared

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