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Daniel J. Cecil and Sayak K. Biswas

extraordinary intensification of Hurricane Patricia (2015) . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0039.1 , in press . 10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0039.1 Rosenkranz , P. W. , and D. H. Staelin , 1972 : Microwave emissivity of ocean foam and its effect on nadiral radiometric measurements . J. Geophys. Res. , 77 , 6528 – 6538 , doi: 10.1029/JC077i033p06528 . 10.1029/JC077i033p06528 Ross , D. B. , and V. Cardone , 1974 : Observations of oceanic whitecaps and their relation to remote

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Jie Feng and Xuguang Wang

Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), and TDR observations onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration WP-3D aircraft ( Rogers et al. 2006 ) were all collected. These observation types are summarized in Table 1 , and their temporal distribution during Patricia can be found in Fig. 1a of Lu and Wang (2020) . Table 1. Descriptions of the configuration of case-study (“Case study”) and continuously cycled (“Archived data”) experiments. Columns 3, 6, 7, and 8 are adapted from Lu and Wang (2019

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David R. Ryglicki, Daniel Hodyss, and Gregory Rainwater

: Improvements in the probabilistic prediction of tropical cyclone rapid intensification with passive microwave observations . Wea. Forecasting , 30 , 1016 – 1038 , https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-14-00109.1 . 10.1175/WAF-D-14-00109.1 Ryglicki , D. R. , and R. E. Hart , 2015 : An investigation of center-finding techniques for tropical cyclones in mesoscale models . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 54 , 825 – 846 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-14-0106.1 . 10.1175/JAMC-D-14-0106.1 Ryglicki , D. R

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Yi Dai, Sharanya J. Majumdar, and David S. Nolan

is used to describe the outflow. This altitude is mostly consistent with findings from aircraft observations ( Komaromi and Doyle 2017 ). However, such a definition is not sufficient to quantitatively relate the full outflow process with TC intensification. We need a simple and meaningful diagnostic to not only represent the direction and strength of the asymmetric outflow, but also to infer the relation between the outflow, environmental flow, and TC intensity. A central hypothesis of our study

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Jie Feng and Xuguang Wang

, HLTCIUV, and ALLTCI than in BASE can be seen in Fig. 12 as well, which verifies the surface (10 m) wind amplitude in 12-h forecasts against the stepped frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR) and the 700-hPa wind amplitude against the flight-level observations, respectively. Although the eyewalls in the four experiments are overall weaker and larger than that observed, ALLTCI still exhibits higher peak wind speed and narrower eyewall than BASE, especially over the southern transect of the flight

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Jonathan Martinez, Michael M. Bell, Robert F. Rogers, and James D. Doyle

) analyzed in this study and its corresponding time window. Observations collected between 1715 and 1915 UTC 22 October as Patricia was in the midst of its record-breaking rapid intensification phase ( Fig. 1a ) are denoted herein as the RI IOP. Microwave imagery shows deep convection in the eyewall wrapping around a compact center of circulation as Patricia had just achieved category 4 status ( Fig. 2a ). Both the P-3 and WB-57 executed figure-4 patterns with the P-3 flying the 700-hPa flight level

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Peter Black, Lee Harrison, Mark Beaubien, Robert Bluth, Roy Woods, Andrew Penny, Robert W. Smith, and James D. Doyle

intensity prediction performance ( Burpee et al. 1996 ; Aberson and Franklin 1999 ; Wu et al. 2007 ; Weissmann et al. 2011 ; Aberson 2010 , 2011 ; Chou et al. 2011 ; Wang et al. 2015 ). Dropsonde observations have also become the “reference standard” against which airborne remote wind sensors such as the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR) have been validated, resulting in improved hurricane intensity estimation and the use of SFMR as the “gold standard” for hurricane surface wind

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Robert L. Creasey and Russell L. Elsberry

displacements may be an order of magnitude larger than in Figs. 3a,b and become crucial for locating the observations relative to the center. Fig . 3. Example of a HDSS sonde deployment at 1800 UTC 4 Oct 2015 near the center of Hurricane Joaquin with horizontal displacements in (a) latitude and (b) longitude (relative to Greenwich) as the sonde falls from 18-km elevation to the ocean surface over ~700 s. Observations each second of (c) wind speed (m s −1 ) and (d) wind direction (°) are inferred from

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James D. Doyle, Jonathan R. Moskaitis, Joel W. Feldmeier, Ronald J. Ferek, Mark Beaubien, Michael M. Bell, Daniel L. Cecil, Robert L. Creasey, Patrick Duran, Russell L. Elsberry, William A. Komaromi, John Molinari, David R. Ryglicki, Daniel P. Stern, Christopher S. Velden, Xuguang Wang, Todd Allen, Bradford S. Barrett, Peter G. Black, Jason P. Dunion, Kerry A. Emanuel, Patrick A. Harr, Lee Harrison, Eric A. Hendricks, Derrick Herndon, William Q. Jeffries, Sharanya J. Majumdar, James A. Moore, Zhaoxia Pu, Robert F. Rogers, Elizabeth R. Sanabia, Gregory J. Tripoli, and Da-Lin Zhang

southeastern edge of the HIRAD swath, there is a secondary wind maximum with 10-m wind speeds locally as high as 50 m s –1 . This feature is separated from the primary eyewall by a moat of much weaker winds. Microwave satellite imagery and WP-3D lower fuselage radar observations [see Figs. 11 and 12c , respectively, of Rogers et al. (2017) ] indicate that the secondary wind maximum observed by HIRAD is accompanied by enhanced convective activity, which encircles most of the inner core. Although it is

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Xu Lu and Xuguang Wang

2015. The surface verification is from the observations of SFMR (Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer) on board the NOAA WP-3D aircraft and the 3-km height verification is composited from the TDR radial velocity data provided by HRD ( Gamache 2005 ; both observations can be obtained from HRD 2015 ). While the SFMR observations suggested a small size hurricane (RMW about 18 km) with strong surface wind maximum (close to 60 m s −1 ; Fig. 3a ) around the northeast of Patricia at this time

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