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Peter Vogel, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Andreas Schlueter, and Tilmann Gneiting

Southern Hemisphere extratropics. b. Observations For a spatially consistent and complete forecast verification, we rely on the TRMM 3B42 gridded dataset. TRMM merges active measurements from a space-borne precipitation radar with passive, radar-calibrated information from infrared as well as microwave measurements ( Huffman et al. 2007 ). Based on monthly accumulations, TRMM estimates are calibrated against nearby gauge observations. The data are available on a 0.25° × 0.25° grid with 3-hourly

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Andreas Schäfler, George Craig, Heini Wernli, Philippe Arbogast, James D. Doyle, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, John Methven, Gwendal Rivière, Felix Ament, Maxi Boettcher, Martina Bramberger, Quitterie Cazenave, Richard Cotton, Susanne Crewell, Julien Delanoë, Andreas Dörnbrack, André Ehrlich, Florian Ewald, Andreas Fix, Christian M. Grams, Suzanne L. Gray, Hans Grob, Silke Groß, Martin Hagen, Ben Harvey, Lutz Hirsch, Marek Jacob, Tobias Kölling, Heike Konow, Christian Lemmerz, Oliver Lux, Linus Magnusson, Bernhard Mayer, Mario Mech, Richard Moore, Jacques Pelon, Julian Quinting, Stephan Rahm, Markus Rapp, Marc Rautenhaus, Oliver Reitebuch, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Harald Sodemann, Thomas Spengler, Geraint Vaughan, Manfred Wendisch, Martin Wirth, Benjamin Witschas, Kevin Wolf, and Tobias Zinner

Multiaircraft and ground-based observations were made over the North Atlantic in the fall of 2016 to investigate the importance of diabatic processes for midlatitude weather. Progress in understanding the processes controlling midlatitude weather is one of the factors that have contributed to a continuous improvement in the skill of medium-range weather forecasts in recent decades ( Thorpe 2004 ; Richardson et al. 2012 ; Bauer et al. 2015 ). Additionally, numerical weather prediction (NWP

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Peter Vogel, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Andreas Schlueter, and Tilmann Gneiting

measurements from the precipitation radar with passive, radar-calibrated information from infrared as well as microwave measurements ( Huffman et al. 2007 ). Based on monthly accumulation sums, TRMM estimates are calibrated against nearby gauge observations. TRMM 3B42-V7 data are available on a 0.25° × 0.25° grid with 3-hourly temporal resolution. c. Data preprocessing Based on 1-day accumulated station observations, we derive 2–5-day accumulated precipitation observations by summing over consecutive 1-day

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Thomas Engel, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, Gregor Pante, and Jan Bliefernicht

precipitation rates with 0.25° × 0.25° latitude–longitude resolution obtained from the combination of the three TRMM sensors mentioned above as well as microwave and infrared sensors aboard other satellites. The satellite-derived 3-hourly precipitation estimates are bias corrected with monthly surface observations from gauge stations. After more than 17 years, TRMM went out of operation in April 2015. In this study, the latest version 3B42 V7 is used for the period 1998–2014. Several studies have confirmed

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Andreas Schlueter, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, and Peter Vogel

with a minimum of 50% observations during 1981–2013 are indicated by a red dot. The two boxes show the location of the Guinea Coast and West Sahel used in this study. Black triangles show prominent orographic features that are discussed in the text: 1) Guinea Highlands, 2) Jos Plateau, 3) Cameroon Line, 4) Bongo Massif, 5) Darfur Mountains, and 6) Ethiopian Highlands. b. Data The modulating impact of tropical waves on rainfall over northern tropical Africa was examined in three different rainfall

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Andreas Schlueter, Andreas H. Fink, and Peter Knippertz

mm day −1 during the monsoon season. Individual types can explain up to one-third of rainfall variability on the daily to subseasonal time scales. The TD and Kelvin modes control precipitation on the daily time scales. ER waves and the MJO dominate longer time scales (see Part I and the references therein). Disturbances in the tropics are not independent from the extratropics. Using weather observations made during the Second World War, Riehl (1950) documented how tropical disturbances

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