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Shinta Seto, Takuji Kubota, Nobuhiro Takahashi, Toshio Iguchi, and Taikan Oki

often contaminated by those due to snow and sand particles on the surface. Seto et al. (2005 , hereinafter S05 ) developed RNC methods for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) ( Kummerow et al. 1998 ) over land using a statistical database. The database statistically summarizes the land surface brightness temperature of the TMI pixels judged to be no-rain pixels by simultaneous TRMM precipitation radar (PR) observations. Therefore, these methods, called PR

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Satya Prakash, Hamid Norouzi, Marzi Azarderakhsh, Reginald Blake, Catherine Prigent, and Reza Khanbilvardi

over the ocean, microwave emissivity over land is highly variable because of a plethora of surface characteristics that include soil moisture, soil texture, surface roughness, land-cover type, and vegetation optical depth. During the last three decades, substantial progress has been made in retrieving LSE from passive microwave (PMW) sensors. Retrieval algorithms are broadly based on land surface models and direct satellite observations ( Ferraro et al. 2013 ; Turk et al. 2014 ; Ringerud et al

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Anita D. Rapp, M. Lebsock, and C. Kummerow

to a common resolution, shows that inhomogeneity effects are still very large. In this paper, we examine the consequences of data convolution and deconvolution on an optimal estimation (OE) retrieval algorithm that uses microwave radiometer measurements to retrieve cloud LWP, wind speed, and total precipitable water (TPW). Results show that data resampling has a substantial effect on the retrieved parameters when compared with retrievals performed on microwave radiometer observations at their

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Ulrich Löhnert, D. D. Turner, and S. Crewell

identified when the correlation matrix was plotted (not shown). Like the microwave spectrum, the infrared spectrum also contains information on the vertical profile of temperature and humidity. Smith et al. (1999) and Feltz et al. (1998) used spectral observations from 612–713 and 2223–2260 cm −1 (i.e., measurements from the 15- and 4.3- μ m CO 2 bands, respectively) for temperature profiling, and observations from 538–588 and 1250–1350 cm −1 (i.e., measurements from the wings of the rotational

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Xin Lin and Arthur Y. Hou

spaceborne active microwave rainfall retrieval, with a horizontal footprint of 5 km over a swath of 247 km (after the orbit boost in August 2001). Not only have PR data been undergoing rigorous internal and external calibrations, they have also been evaluated favorably against surface observations over different oceanic and land validation sites (e.g., Schumacher and Houze 2000 ; Liao et al. 2001 ). Considering the PR’s stable and active microwave sensing features (especially its theoretical

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Ruiyao Chen and Ralf Bennartz

scattering properties of nonspherical precipitation-sized ice particles and their effects on radar and passive microwave observations of clouds and precipitation has drawn significant attention in the last years. Tremendous progress has been made in understanding the scattering properties of nonspherical ice particles ( Ekelund and Eriksson 2019 ; Eriksson et al. 2015 ; Hogan and Westbrook 2014 ; Hogan et al. 2017 ; Hong 2007 ; Hong et al. 2009 ; Kim 2006 ; Kuo et al. 2016 ; Leinonen et al. 2018

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William S. Olson, Lin Tian, Mircea Grecu, Kwo-Sen Kuo, Benjamin T. Johnson, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Aaron Bansemer, Gerald M. Heymsfield, James R. Wang, and Robert Meneghini

of an “effective” spherical particle density for the purpose of parameterizing the nonspherical snow particle scattering properties would not lead to consistent scattering properties across the spectrum of DPR and GMI channel frequencies. The validity of different snow particle models has been tested using coincident radar and passive microwave observations by Kulie et al. (2010) . They interpreted W-band (94 GHz) radar observations from CloudSat in terms of snow particle size distributions

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Thiago S. Biscaro and Carlos A. Morales

Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission ( Adams et al. 2002 ) will improve the temporal resolution of microwave-based observations by launching a constellation of combined equatorial and polar orbit satellites to produce an observation over the same spot every 3 h (information about the GPM mission is available online at http://gpm.gsfc.nasa.gov ). Unlike IR radiation, MW radiation penetrates clouds and can interact with hydrometeors, depending on the wavelength and particle sizes. Low

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David B. Wolff and Brad L. Fisher

designed around validating the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI), Precipitation Radar (PR), and Combined (COM) standard rain products on monthly scales over the regional GV sites. Prior to launch, instantaneous validation was still considered somewhat intractable because of statistical uncertainties stemming from the spatiotemporal measuring characteristics of the satellite and GV observations. Direct instantaneous comparisons between coincident measurements are difficult to achieve without a sufficient

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David B. Wolff and Brad L. Fisher

the most difficult physical quantities to measure accurately because of extreme variability both temporally and spatially, and insufficient observations over the planet’s oceans. Since the early 1970s, satellites have been used to quantitatively estimate precipitation by observing the emission and scattering processes associated with clouds and precipitation in the atmosphere. Multichannel passive microwave remote sensing techniques hold the most promise because these instruments sample rain

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