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Lisa Milani, Mark S. Kulie, Daniele Casella, Pierre E. Kirstetter, Giulia Panegrossi, Veljko Petkovic, Sarah E. Ringerud, Jean-François Rysman, Paolo Sanò, Nai-Yu Wang, Yalei You, and Gail Skofronick-Jackson

detection statistics ( Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2019 ). In particular, the Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF; Kummerow et al. 1996 ; Kummerow et al. 2015 ), which retrieves precipitation rates using passive microwave (PMW) observations, generally underestimates both snowfall detection and quantification when compared to active remote sensing sensor snowfall products. Previous studies based on theoretical analyses ( Skofronick-Jackson and Johnson 2011 ) and radiometer observations ( Panegrossi et al

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Veljko Petković, Marko Orescanin, Pierre Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, and Ralph Ferraro

especially pronounced in satellite observations. Since the first spaceborne passive microwave instruments were launched in early 1970s, satellite precipitation retrievals have exploited the link between upwelling radiation and state of atmospheric column. Leveraging decades of ever-improving algorithms, coverage, and data latency, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission ( Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2018 ; Hou et al. 2014 ) represents the most advance satellite precipitation project to date

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Clément Guilloteau and Efi Foufoula-Georgiou

of orbiting imagers providing frequent observations of clouds and precipitation all over the globe ( Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2018 ). The passive microwave retrieval of precipitation relies on the measurement of radiances at the top of the atmosphere, which are the product of the surface emission, emission and absorption by liquid rain drops and water vapor and scattering by ice particles. Vertically and horizontally polarized radiances are measured at various frequencies between 5 and 200 GHz

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Sarah Ringerud, Christa Peters-Lidard, Joe Munchak, and Yalei You

1. Introduction Accurate, physically based precipitation retrieval over global land surfaces is an important goal of the joint NASA/JAXA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) ( Hou et al. 2014 ; Skofronick-Jackson et al. 2017 ). This is a challenging problem for the passive microwave constellation component of GPM, as the hydrometeor signal over radiometrically warm land surfaces in the microwave frequencies means that the measurements used in retrievals are more indirect than over

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